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Islam in Sub-Continent

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    Islam in Sub-Continent

    Advent of Islam:

    The last Prophet of Islam, Prophet Muhammad (SAW), completely changed the intellectual outlook of Arabia. Within a span of 23 years, he transformed the barbarous and impious Arabs into a civilized nation. On the demise of the Prophet, the expansion of Islam was not stopped.
    The Muslim conquest of Persia including the provinces of Kirman and Makran brought the Arabs face to face with the then ruler of Sind, who had made common cause with the ruler of Makran against the Muslims. But, it was not until the seaborne trade of the Arabs in the Indian Ocean was jeopardized that serious attempts were made to subjugate Sind.
    Trade relations between Arabia and the sub-continent of Pakistan and India date back to antiquity. Long before the advent of Islam to Arabia, the Arabs used to visit the coast of southern India, which then provided the link between the ports of South and South East Asia.

    Causes of the Invasion of Sind:
    The commercial activities of Arabs intensified after the Arabs had been converted to Islam. The Umayyad Khalifah, al Walid I appointed Hajjaj bin Yousaf as the governor of the Eastern provinces. It was during the governorship of Hajjaj bin Yousaf, that pirates plundered eight ships near Diabul, a seaport in Sind. The ships were carrying the orphan daughters of the Arab merchants, who had died in Ceylon and many valuable presents sent by the King of Ceylon for the Khalifah and the governor.
    Hajjaj demanded from Dahir, the ruler of Sind, adequate compensation, to which Dahir replied that he had no control over the pirates and was, therefore, powerless to chastise them. On this Hajjaj decided to invade Sind. Two smaller expeditions having failed, he sent his son in-law Imaduddin Muhammad bin Qasim, a youth of seventeen to invade Sind.
    Expedition under Muhammad bin Qasim:
    Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sind with 6,000 picked Syrian and Iraqi soldiers, a camel corps of equal strength and a baggage train of 3000 camels. His siege engines included a manjaniq worked by 500 men. Proceeding through Makran, Muhammad bin Qasim appeared before Daibul in 712. On his way he was joined by the governor of Makran who gave him additional force. In addition, a good number of Jats and Meds, who had suffered at the hands of native rulers, joined the Arab forces.
    After the fall of Daibul, Muhammad bin Qasim turned towards Nirun, near modern Hyderabad and obtained the submission of itís inhabitants. Dahir decided to oppose the Arabs at Raor. After a fierce struggle, Dahir was overpowered and killed. Raor fell into the hands of the Muslims.
    Muhammad bin Qasim then occupied Alor and proceeded towards Multan. On the way a fortress called Sikka (Uch) situated on the bank of the Ravi was occupied. Multan offered resistance for two months after which the Hindus were overpowered and defeated. Prior to this, Muhammad bin Qasim had taken Brahmanabad and a few other important towns of Sind.
    Administration of Sind:
    In conformity with Muslim practice Muhammad bin Qasim guaranteed to the conquered people the security of life and property and freedom of worship. Meaning, that the people of Sind were treated as Zimmis, a protected people. The Brahmins and Buddhist priests were treated well and were entrusted with responsible administrative offices, particularly in the revenue department.

    I will Inshallah Post more history about Islam in Sub-Continent.