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Taqiyyah- What is it? (Part2)

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    Taqiyyah- What is it? (Part2)

    Taqiyyah Amongst the Second Generation of Bábí Notables
    Many learned and respected Bábís practiced Taqiyyah before and after the martyrdom of the Báb in order to avoid involvement in various uprisings, persecutions and afflictions. Such Bábís were fully aware of the significance of their actions. Many chose to assist their fellow Bábís secretly in times of need. The scope of such assistance was limited to their degree of caution and Taqiyyah.

    It appears that these Bábís were not ready to sacrifice their positions, titles and life comforts for their faith. Taqiyyah amongst them was no longer a tool to protect the identity of the Báb or His position. This requirement was largely superseded after the execution of the Báb. These Bábís represented the prosperous class of Ulama and Bazari merchants who were in some way dependent on the Ulama or the ruling establishment for their survival.

    It is interesting to note that many from this group later changed their ways, declared their faith and lost their lives for the Cause. Clearly they had an internal struggle between conscientious belief and human desires. A struggle that resulted in them abandoning the practice of Taqiyyah.
     
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    Haji Mulla Baqir Ardakani was the Imam Jumha in the city of Ardikan. He became one of the first disciples of Vahid. He continued to practice as a Mullah in the local mosque after becoming a Bábí. He led the mass prayers, conducted religious ceremonies and preached Islamic traditions. Gradually rumours began to circulate about his hidden loyalties. Rival Mullahs and ambitious officials rose in his opposition and signed an open petition calling him an infidel and requesting his removal. The petition was sent to the Governor of Kirman. Haji Mulla Baqir Ardakani subsequently met the Governor, practiced Taqiyyah and convinced him that the allegations are not correct. The Governor became fond of the Haji and paid for his expense to travel to Karbila in order to become a Mujtahid. He spent two years in Karbila and returned to his native Ardikan. Such was the Governor's respect for him that a welcome party was dispatched to the outskirts of Ardikan to greet him. Upon his arrival he instantly received recognition from the leading Mullahs of Yazd and Ardikan to engage as a Mujtahid. He returned to his duties as the Imam Jumha and publicly distanced himself from the Bábí faith. He continued to assist Bábís in secret and later became a Bahá'í.[32]
     
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    Mullah Mohammed Ja'far Kirmani was a leading cleric in the city of Kirman practicing as an Islamic teacher in that city. He became a Bábí after he met Mullah Sadiq Muqaddas Khorassani in Kirman. He was considered as one of the learned Bábís. When Haji Mohammed Karim Khan Kirmani the Shaykhi leader found out about his conversion, he organised a public campaign forcing Mullah Mohammed Ja'far to be sidelined and isolated by his former followers. Mullah Mohammed Ja'far resorted to the local Mujtahids and Imam Jumha for assistance. They publicly announced that he was not a Bábí. After a short while he re-commenced his duties as a teacher in the mosque, occasionally standing in as the acting Imam Jumha. Mullah Mohammed Ja'far Kirmani continued to assist the Bábís in secret but refused to meet any of the prominent Bábí leaders. He sent a letter to the Báb and received a tablet in response. He continued to practice Taqiyyah and maintained his Islamic credentials choosing to remain a Mullah until the end of his life.[33]
     
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    Shaykh Mohammed Taqi Hashtroudi was a former Shaykhi student and considered as a learned Bábí. He was extremely conservative, living and practicing a life of Taqiyyah. It was acknowledged amongst the Bábís that he 'ran miles away' at the mention of the name Bábí. He enjoyed particular respect and influence within the Shaykhi followers. Mulla Mohammed Mamqani (one of the Shaykhi Mullahs who signed the Báb's execution order) displayed sincere affection towards Shaykh Mohammed Taqi and would invite him to his house every time he visited Tabriz. Shaykh Mohammed Taqi Hashtroudi would secretly meet with the Bábís during the night. His counterparts never found out about his real convictions.[34]
     
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    Haji Mirza Ibrahim Sabzevari was one of the grand Mujtahids in the city of Sabzevar and enjoyed enormous powers as the religious head and Imam Jumha of that city. He had met the Báb whilst He was in Isfahan and secretly believed in Him. However he practiced Taqiyyah and dissimulated his thoughts. He assisted the Bábís of that city during desperate times.[35]
     
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    Aqa Mirza Ahmad Azqandi was a leading student of Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kazim. He enjoyed the respect of the Shaykhi community. He declared his faith in the Báb following a meeting with Mullah Husayn and wrote a treatise in support of Báb's claims. Following a series of persecutions in Yazd, he suffered an enormous financial loss, battered reputation and threats to his personal safety. In the following decades he refused to get involved in the Bábí cause and practiced Taqiyyah to save his life. Following the execution of the Báb, he became reinvigorated, abandoning the practice of Taqiyyah in order to assist his fellow Bábís.[36]
     
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    Abu'l Hassan Mirza Haj Shaykhu'l Rais was a Qajar Prince and a leading poet who enjoyed recognition in the literary circles in the City of Mashhad. Mirza Saeed Khan was a former Foreign Minister who was seconded to administer the Imam Rida estate in the City of Mashhad during his retirement. Both practiced Taqiyyah in order to protect their lives from what they called 'the savagery of the mob, particularly the Mujtahids.' They are known to have assisted the Bábís on a number of occasions. In at least one instance, they requested the Bábís to observe Taqiyyah to escape the persecutions.[37]

    Haji Mirza Hassan Shirazi was considered to be the Grand Mujtahid of Shiites and an expert in Islamic philosophy. He exercised considerable influence over the general Shiite population including officials in the Royal court of Nasir'ul-Din Shah. His famous Fatwa on banning the use of tobacco caused the political turmoil at the time. Haji Mirza Hassan Shirazi was a second cousin of the Báb and had met Him in the house of the Imam Jumha in Isfahan. After observing the power of His words, he declared his faith. From that period onwards, Haji Mirza Hassan exercised extreme caution in his contacts with the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and other believers. He managed to save himself by practicing Taqiyyah. He is known to have intervened on at least one occasion to assist the Bábís in captivity.[38]
     
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    Haji Mulla Mohammed Hamzih Shariatmadar was a respected old cleric in the City of Babol (Bar-foroosh). He constantly assisted and protected the Bábís and in response to questions from the general public would say 'I do not consider them bad and will not make negative comments about them.'[39] He set out to join the Bábís in Shaykh Tabarsi but was unable to get there due to the military embargo. Under instructions from Quddus, the 85 year old married his sister in order to protect her and a number of tablets and writings from Quddus. He performed final prayers for the funerals of Bábí martyrs and sought forgiveness for their killers. Other Mullahs became furious and called him a traitor and an infidel. Haji Mulla Mohammed Hamzih Shariatmadar managed to free the body of Quddus and bury it in the outskirts of the city. When his rival counterpart Saeedu'l Ulama provoked the mob to dig up and burn his remains, Haji complained vehemently to the Governor and warned of the wrath of God comparing this to the actions of the oppressors of Imam Husayn in Karbila. The Governor issued an order preventing Saeedu'l Ulama from carrying out his wish.[40]
     
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    The Mirza Mohammed Riza Abrari in Yazd was an influential senior Mullah. He was a former student of Siyyid Kazim Rashti who later believed in Báb. He practiced Taqiyyah to such an extent that his son was unaware of his belief. In the final hour of his life, he called his son Shaykh Zinul'Abedin to his bedside and encouraged him to investigate and accept the claims and teachings of the Báb.[41]
     
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    Aqa Shaykh Sadiq was a well-known scholar and teacher in Yazd and enjoyed a great deal of respect from the Ulama. He practiced Taqiyyah and never declared his faith in public. This caused him to continue teaching in the Shaf'ite school in Yazd for another 12 years. When rumours began to spread, he was banned from teaching altogether.[42]
     
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    Haji Mulla Mohammed Ali was another scholar and teacher who was the acting Imam Jumha on the locality of Dih Abad close to the City of Yazd. He became a Bábí in secret and was known for practicing Taqiyyah. He encouraged the Governor to build a special school for the young children in that locality. Once the school was built, he became the senior teacher. When rumours of his faith spread, he left his job and escaped to Yazd.[43]
     
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    Mirza Riza Quli Hakim brother of Bahá'u'lláh practiced as a Physician in the Royal Court in Tehran. His persistence in Taqiyyah was such that he refrained from mentioning His name or declaring His relationship with himself.[44]
     
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    Haji Mirza Yahya Dowlat-Abadi was a leading Bábí figure in Isfahan. After allegations of his Bábí affiliations surfaced, he was taken in to custody. In order to please the Shaykh Najafi the Mujtahid of Isfahan and protect his financial interests, Haji Mirza Yahya Dowlat-Abadi agreed to attend a number of his sermons and publicly denounce and slander the faith. His denunciation came during a heavy round of persecutions in nearby Najaf Abad in which many Bábís were arrested and killed. Later he announced his allegiance to Azal and began to persecute the local Bahá'ís. Bahá'u'lláh devotes a full section in the Epistle to the Son of Wolf to his activities and treason.
     
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    Mirza Aqa Rekab-Saz was a renowned Bahá'í in Yazd. The enemies provoked his wife – who was biased against the faith – to make an official complaint against him to the Governor. She agreed and alleged that Mirza Aqa was a Bahá'í engaged in copying Bahá'í Scriptures and regularly met with other notable Bahá'ís. Mirza Aqa decided to quell the rumours by practicing Taqiyyah. He became a regular participant in the daily prayers in the mosque of the senior Shaykh in the city. Gradually he gave the impression that he is not a Bábí and saved his life. He was later martyred in another round of persecutions.[45]
     
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    Haji Mirza Kamalul'Din Naraqi was a leading Imam Jumha and mullah of his native town of Naraq. He had travelled to Baghdad, met Bahá'u'lláh and became a Bahá'í at the age of 20. Upon his return to Naraq, the people appointed him as their Imam Jumha. He continued in this capacity and practiced Taqiyyah for a further year. One day he became wary of Taqiyyah and during his daily sermon thought to himself: 'Taqiyyah and caution is not the path of the lovers of religion. The days in this life will pass and there will be no recourse but regret.' Immediately he began to speak on the importance of the fundamental teachings and their priority over minor religious issues and promised the crowd that he will re-commence his duties in the mosque on another day. He then left the mosque and returned to Baghdad immediately.[46]

    From Taqiyyah to total Denial
    For many Bábís the practice of Taqiyyah was a forerunner to their eventual abandonment of their faith. Most of these Bábís had cautiously adopted Taqiyyah and then gradually moved on to severe ties with the Cause even refusing to assist other Bábís.
     
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    Mulla Hadi Qazvini was a Shaykhi student of Siyyid Kazim Rashti who later came to Shiraz and became one of the Letters of Living. He did not get involved in the Tabarsi uprising and shielded his life through Taqiyyah. Following the open declaration of Bahá'u'lláh, Mulla Hadi became a devout Azali and rose in His opposition. Mulla Hadi was expelled from the community by Bahá'u'lláh during the Adrine period and spent his final days in oblivion.[47]
     
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    Mulla Mohammed Taqi Horavi was a leading Mujtahid of his time. Islamic clerics in Isfahan relied on his knowledge and understanding of Shiite theology. He handled the judicial matters in that City. Later he became a Bábí and translated His 'Sahifeh Adliya' from Arabic to Farsi. He sent a number of letters to the Báb in Maku and in reply received many tablets from His pen. Months later fear and insecurity caused him to practice Taqiyyah and he gradually distanced himself from the Bábís. He spent his final days in Karbila isolated and suffered a lonely death.[48]
     
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    Mulla Ali Akbar Ardistani was one the early Bábís who accepted the faith during Mullah Husayn's stay in Isfahan. He then followed Mulla Sadiq Muqaddas to Shiraz. They were arrested, heavily tortured and carried around the Bazaar. After that event he adopted Taqiyyah and never again involved himself at times of danger.[49]
     
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    Mirza Husayn Yazdi was an influential Mullah in the city of Yazd. He copied and distributed many of the Báb's treatises. When rumours circulated about his Bábí affiliations, he practiced Taqiyyah and ordered his followers to inflict lashes on an arrested Bábí (Mulla Ali Naqi Rowza Khan). He survived a major upheaval against the Bábís in that city and was subsequently appointed as the head of the Islamic school and amassed considerable wealth. On another occasion he ordered two other Bábís to be beaten until such time that they recant their faith.[50]

    Mirza Aqa Khan Kirmani was a leading Azali and the son-in-law of Mirza Yahya Azal. He practiced Taqiyyah and on many occasions publicly humiliated teachings of the Báb and the character of Azal. His famous book 'Sad Khatabeh' is a testimony to his open adoption of Taqiyyah.[51]
     
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    Taqiyyah amongst the rank and file Bábís was a personal choice. Many Bábís openly engaged in other unlawful activities and yet called themselves a Bábí. Ustad Mohammad Ali Salmani recalls his early days as a Bábí:


    The majority of Bábís were not steadfast and many were involved in unacceptable behaviours. I visited Aqa Mohammad Javad Najafabadi – a genuinely honest Bábí – at his house on the 21st Day of Ramadan. He was a good Bábí but happened to drink wine. He was filtering wine in his residence where the odour had alerted the neighbours. They surrounded the house, arrested us and took us to the prison... We were five in total. Mohammed Javad – a good old man who used to travel to nearby districts and teach – Abdul'Karim Isfahani who has now become a covenant breaker, Mohammed Sadiq the brother of Abdul'Karim who displayed little conviction in the cause, Mulla Ali my teacher who was a genuine and well natured individual and myself.[52]
    He continues: 
     
    We consulted amongst ourselves in jail and agreed to exclude Mohammed Sadiq from our ranks because he was not stable. We told the authorities that he has been arrested by mistake and they later released him. Thus we then became four in number and decided against dissimulation (Taqiyyah) as it was not desirable. We agreed that it was best to say the same thing (during interrogations) and maintain consistency.[53]
    Treatises and Compilations
    In many instances the learned Bábís who practiced Taqiyyah left behind significant literary works in support of the new revelation. Unfortunately in some cases the opposition of their children to the Faith resulted in the loss of most of these treatises. The impact of these treatises in guiding the general population to the Cause is difficult to verify. However their very existence indicates the internal struggle within the learned class of Bábís who chose to practice Taqiyyah.
     
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    Shaykh Mohammed Taqi Hashtroudi wrote a book entitled 'Abvab-Al-Hoda' in support of the Bábí cause from a Shaykhi perspective. This work includes the author's detailed personal recollections from the classes of Shaykh Ahmad Ahsai and Siyyid Kazim Rashti in detail. In certain sections he resorts to abusive language whilst condemning the enemies of the faith such as Mulla Mohammed Mamaqani (ironically one of his ardent followers!). He submitted this book during his final days to Mulla Mostafa Tabrizi one of his Bábí contacts in Tabriz.[54]
     
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    Aqa Mirza Ahmad Azqandi whilst observing Taqiyyah and caution wrote a treatise in support of Báb's claims at the request of his Bábí friend.[55]
     
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    Haji Mulla Mohammed Hamzih Shriatmadar published a book entitled 'Asrar-Al-Shahada' five years after the martyrdom of the Báb. He writes:


    'Báb' means the Gate. As the Prophet (Mohammed) was the City of knowledge and Ali – peace be upon him – was the gate to that city... Similarly the first gate was Jinab-i Mirza Ali Mohammed who was from a merchant family. Although I never met him, I have read a book written by Him when he was 27 years of age. In His younger days He spent less than a year in Karbila in the company of Jinab-i Haji Siyyid Kazim (Rashti). He only studied elementary subjects and developed an extraordinary power to write and an incredible mental capacity to create (works) ... He wrote six or seven volumes in a style close to the Quranic verses and many powerful Khotab similar to 'Sahifeh Sajadieh' (written by Imam Ali). He wrote a commentary to the Sura of the Cow (Baqarah) with difficult and strange combinations of words. These works were delivered to me. They were written with a pleasant style of handwriting. He had a quick pen and wrote in style. He claimed the position of Bábíya and named himself the Báb ... The second Báb after Him was Jinab-i Haji Mohammed Ali the son of a Mazandarani farmer who lived at the same age and appeared slightly older than Him. He accompanied (the Báb) to Mecca ... and similar to (the Báb) had not studied conventional theory. After returning from Mecca He wrote an incomplete commentary on the Surah of Oneness (Tawhid). I read approximately five to six thousand verses revealed by Him at a quick pace. The slant and message of this work were solely on the oneness of God... The third Báb was Jinab-i Akhund Mulla Husayn Bushruieh. He was competent in the conventional theory, theology, fundamentals and grammar. He considered his knowledge of Bábíya a mere drop of ocean in comparison to the other two. He was quite brave, had a fighting spirit and was skilled with the sword ... (after Shaykh Tabarsi) they brought Haji Mohammed Ali and several of his followers to town. Haji was taken to Sabzeh-Maydan and was set on fire. When the public questioned me about my opinion of the oppressor/oppressed parties, or regarding their infidelity of Islam, I used to remain silent. Not writing a response or uttering an answer... This was a summary of their story. Although they have been eliminated for now, their future fate may be unpredictable. Must ponder on the consequence (of actions) and its implications... Others alleged that prophets and Imams were witches and considered them mentally unstable, infidel or mad. This was due to their own stupidity and deficiency in understanding and comprehension. How can it be that a knowledgeable, honest, learned, respected and perfect man born as a Shiite in a Shiite family and raised amongst the Shiites seeking the religion of Siyyid Al Mursalin (Mohammed) would lie and lean towards blasphemy? The insane and mentally ill will not do what he does... If people are investigating, they must ask him or remain quite and leave Him to His Lord. They must not denounce Him according to their imperfect minds...[56]
      o
    Mulla Alyaz was a Jewish Physician in the City of Hamadan who secretly declared his faith following a meeting with Tahirih in that City. He then practiced Taqiyyah in order to protect his life and the security of the Jewish minority in Hamadan. He subsequently assisted Comte de Gobineau in compiling information and detailing certain events relating to Bábí history.[57]
     
    Unfortunately not all of the compilations and writings were complimentary to the Cause. The Azali Bábís and in particular Mirza Aqa Khan Kirmani and Shaykh Ahmad Ruhi showed little hesitation in the alteration and falsification of Bábí teachings and history in their works. Azali Bábí' regarded Taqiyyah as an imperative requirement.

    Contrary to Bahá'ís who had begun to discard the practice of Taqiyyah with the passage of time and gradually moved to stamp out this practice from their ranks, Azalis stayed loyal to the Taqiyyah and praised its adoption in their literature. Azali leaders such as Haji Mirza Hadi Dowlatabadi, Mirza Aqa Khan Kirmani and Shaykh Ahmad Ruhi all had publicly renounced the Báb and Azal in a series of formal meetings with Ulama, officials and common people. However in the case of Mirza Aqa Khan Kirmani and Shaykh Ahmad Ruhi their repeated Taqiyyah were never believed by the general public and government authorities.
     
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    Aqa Khan Kirmani allocated a considerable section to raising the status of Taqiyyah in the Bábí religion in his book Hasht Behesht. He regards those who practice Taqiyyah as true believers. This may have been aimed at countering the negative impressions created in the minds of most Bábís following the flagrant manner which Azali leaders used in public to slander their faith. Hasht Behesht lists the advantages of Taqiyyah:


    Taqiyyah is a sign of true religion and if (a follower) of an aborted religion practices Taqiyyah, he will be destroyed instantly. Aborted religions have no features other than some superficial customs and ceremonies... Aborted religions do not possess any hidden secrets or truths. Therefore practicing Taqiyyah in these religions will cause them to be destroyed and annulled. The more the hidden secrets, Taqiyyah and concealment in a religion, the more the authenticity and truth of that religion ... believer is the person who displays more Taqiyyah. Increased concealment in a religion will cause greater power, influence and respect in its teachings... Secrets and truths are like roots and bases. The healthier the root and base, the greater the appearance of a tree. It has been said by the learned that a tree without a firm base will not produce green branches. Hiding a secret will hasten the prosperity of the revelation. Just as a plant will not grow if the seed is not hidden inside the ground... Whosoever keeps secrets will experience an eternal joy in his heart...[58]
    Aqa Khan ventures further and classifies secrets into four levels. The concealers of secrets in the upper level cannot disclose their message to those from a lower level. The highest level is level four where Aqa Khan claims 'even they do not know what secret they are concealing.'[59]

    According to Aqa Khan one must behave in a cordial fashion with the enemies and not share 'secrets' with them. In his more political work 'Sad Khatabeh' Aqa Khan contradicts his earlier claims:


    One of the evils of conversion by force and declaration without thought which manifests itself amongst the Iranians is Taqiyyah. Curse on Taqiyyah ... though Iranians contend themselves by taking this course, they neglect the fact that half of the moral values of this nations have been corrupted due to Taqiyyah which was originally instilled in their veins through the sword of the Arabs...[60]


    During this work he switches from Taqiyyah to outright opposition to the Báb and personal insult:


    The philosophical teachings of Mulla Sadra, theologies of Shaykh Morteza, Irfan of Shaykh Ahmad and Bayán of the Báb: How have they benefited this beleaguered country? They have not increased government revenue, increased their standard of living or removed the threats of Russian and British influence. Though every day their poverty is increased and their plight becomes more sorrowful...[61]

    Also:


    Siyyid Báb had no warships to support his claims. Despite his arrogance, his people displayed no bravery or grandeur. Despite his self-praise, he possessed no considerable knowledge or power. Therefore he based his government on Islam and staked his reputation on the love of the Holy Imams.[62]

    And:


    Siyyid Báb has called himself the Lord of all in the Heavens and in the Earth. We can say that such arrogance is not new in the Islamic nation ... rotten Dervishes and forgotten leaders have made such claims but none have dared to call themselves God.[63]

    Mirza Aqa Khan and other Azalis claimed loyalty to the Báb and his teachings. Yet they continued this style of taqiyyah to discredit the Babi movement in general. This duality in approach reduced their moral credentials amongst the Bábís and nullified their vehement campaign against Bahá'u'lláh.
     
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    In contrast, the Bahá'ís were clearly instructed by Bahá'u'lláh to consider 'steadfastness in the Cause of God' above all other teachings. Bahá'u'lláh writes to Haji Siyyid Javad Karbalai in these words:


    Certain souls who confess to recognising the Lord ... if they fail to observe certain actions or do not consider them in accordance with wisdom, [one] must not treat them in harshness... There are certain teachings that compliance with them will cause no harm to the individuals. It is a duty of all to observe them ... in this age the important necessity is for all to recognize the manifestation of God and be steadfast in His Cause.[64]
      o
    The conflicting statements made by Azali Bábís in regards to the Báb caused Mirza Abu'l Fadl Golpayegani to write these words to Edward Browne:


    Are they (Aqa Khan and Shaykh Ahmad Ruhi) proclaiming the Islamic Faith or the Azali Faith? Unless we assume that they are practicing Taqiyyah and have concealed their religion in disguise. This excuse is contrary to Mr. Browne's view of the Azalis, considering them as brave and independent people. This excuse is also in variance with their (Aqa Khan and Shaykh Ahmad Ruhi) initiative in setting up a United Islamic Front. Therefore we can either say that they are genuine Moslems and Mr Browne has portrayed them as Azali. Or that they are genuine Azalis ... and their open invitations for a united Islam and concern for the Islamic religion stems from Taqiyyah... Mr Browne claims to be an independent observer. How can he ignore these apparent contradictions? ... these two souls are either hard line Shiites or wayward infidels.[65]
    Pressure from the Family
    In many cases the emotional pressure and physical harassment by the members of the immediate family coerce the new converts into observing Taqiyyah. Some chose not to disclose their new affiliation with the family right from the start. From the family's point of view, public disclosure of their member's new faith was an open invitation for unwanted persecutions. It was a preamble to provoking the enmity of their neighbours and imposition of economic and social embargoess on the whole family. The easiest way out of the crisis was encouraging the 'wayward' member to observe Taqiyyah.

    Recognition of the new faith caused many families to be disrupted, separated or even destroyed. The other members of the family with reputation, business or influence in the old system, those who wanted to achieve a higher status in the existing order or those who simply wanted to protect the status quo did not want to be drawn in to a raging conflict over religion. Whence they treated the 'wayward' family member with the utmost contempt.
     
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    Mirza Abu'l Fadl conveyed this point to Prince Kamran Mirza who planned to massacre the Bahá'ís in Tehran: 'Many Bahá'ís conceal their faith to such an extent that their immediate family members remain unaware of their faith. Their identification is not possible by peaceful means.'[66]
     
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    Mulla Alyaz was a Jewish Physician in Hamadan. When he declared his interest in the faith to his father, his family became alarmed. His father – the influential leader of the local Jewish Community in Hamadan – concerned at the potential danger facing the Jewish minority at the hands of the Ulama and the mob, insisted that his son reconsider this matter. Mulla Alyaz became a Bábí without his father's knowledge and concealed this matter from him for a considerable period of time.[67]
     
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    Mirza Aqa Ismu'llah Moniru'l Monib had a merchant father who was a hard line Shiite. He was extremely opposed to the Báb and the Bábís. When Monib became a Bábí, he initially practiced Taqiyyah and concealed the matter from his father. A short time later he experienced a spiritually transformation, spending a considerable time in meditation and displaying outward signs of emotional attachment to the Cause. When his father found out, he took his son to the outskirts of Kashan in the company of a few of his colleagues. He then ordered them to kill his own son and abandon his body. After Monib pleaded with his father, he reluctantly agreed to free him on the condition that he leave the city and never return.[68]
     
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    Mirza Aqa Rekab-Saz was forced to practice Taqiyyah in Yazd after his wife made a formal complaint to the Governor.[70]
     
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    Mulla Abul'Hassan Ardikani observed Taqiyyah and concealed his beliefs from his immediate family until the final day of his life.[70]
     
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    The relatives of Shaykh Zainu'l Abidin Abrari encouraged him to practice Taqiyyah in public.[71]

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