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history of islam in china

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    history of islam in china

    interesting stuff!
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religi...na/index.shtml

    Islam in China
    Muslims in China have managed to practise their faith in China, sometimes against great odds, since the seventh century. Islam is one of the religions that is still officially recognised in China.

    Origins
    It is believed that Islam began in China during the Caliphate of Uthman ibn Affan, the third Caliph of Islam.

    The Caliph sent a deputation to China in 29 AH (650 CE, eighteen years after the death of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

    The delegation was headed by Sa’ad ibn Waqqas a maternal uncle of the Prophet. Sa’ad Ibn Waaqas invited the Chinese Emperor (Yung-Wei) to embrace Islam.

    To show his admiration for Islam the Emperor ordered the establishment of China’s first Mosque. The magnificent Canton Mosque is known to this day as the "memorial mosque" and it still stands after fourteen centuries.

    In Arab records there are only sparse records of the event, but there is a brief mention in the ancient records of the Tang dynasty. Chinese Muslims consider this event to mark the birth of Islam in China.

    Trade
    Many Muslims went to China to trade, and these Muslims began to have a great economic impact and influence on the country. Muslims virtually dominated the import/export industry by the time of the Sung dynasty (960-1279).

    Integration
    Muslims became fully integrated into Chinese society. One interesting example of this synthesis was the process by which Muslims changed their names.

    Many Muslims married Han Chinese women and simply took the name of the wife. But others took the Chinese surname of Mo, Mai, and Mu - names adopted by the Muslims who had the surnames Muhammad, Mustafa and Masoud.

    Some Muslims, who could not find a Chinese surname similar to their own, adopted the Chinese character most similar to their own - Ha for Hasan, Hu for Hussain and Sa’I for Said and so on.

    In addition to names, Muslim customs of dress and food also underwent a synthesis with Chinese culture.

    The Islamic modes of dress and dietary rules were maintained within a Chinese cultural framework. In time, the Muslims began to speak local dialects and to read in Chinese.

    Hostility
    The rise of the Ch’ing dynasty (1644-1911) made relations between the Muslims and Chinese more difficult.

    The Ch’ing were Manchu not Han, and were themselves a minority in China. They employed the tactics of divide and conquer to keep the Muslims, Hans, Tibetans and Mongolians in conflict with each other.

    During the long rule of this Manchu dynasty five wars were waged against the Muslims, and the Muslims suffered many losses.

    Twentieth Century
    The Manchu dynasty fell in 1911, and the Republic of China was established by Sun Yat Sen, who immediately proclaimed that the country belonged equally to the Han, Hui (Muslim), Meng (Mongol), and the Tsang (Tibetan) peoples. This led to some improvement in relations between these different peoples.

    The Communist Era
    The People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949. Through much of the early years there were tremendous upheavals, which culminated in the Cultural Revolution.

    During the Cultural Revolution the Government attempted to dilute the Muslim population of Xinjiang by settling masses of Han Chinese there, and replacing Muslim leaders.

    In 1978, the Chinese Government liberalised its policies toward Islam and Muslims. New legislation gave all minorities the freedom to use their own spoken and written languages, develop their own culture and education and practice their religion.

    China Today
    Under China’s current leadership Islam is undergoing a modest revival and there are now many mosques in China. There has been an upsurge in Islamic expression and many nation-wide Islamic associations have been organised to co-ordinate inter-ethnic activities among Muslims.

    In most of China Muslims have considerable religious freedom, however in areas like Xinjiang, where there has been unrest among Uighur Muslims, activities are restricted.

    China is fighting an increasingly protracted struggle against members of its Uighur minority, who are a Turkic people with their own language and distinct Islamic culture. Uighar separatists are intent on re-establishing the state of East Turkistan, which existed for a few years in the 1920s.

    China believes the separatists are being assisted by Muslim fundamentalist groups in Afghanistan and other Central Asian republics.

    China fears the influence of radical Islamic thinking filtering in from central Asia, and the role of exiles in neighbouring states and in Turkey, with which Xinjiang's majority Uighur population shares linguistic ties.

    Recent reports (2000/2001) by human rights organisations claim that in parts of Xinjiang there are considerable restrictions
    • Government officials control mosque building
    • Government officials control appointment of imams
    • Large gatherings of Uighur Muslims are discouraged
    • Mosques must record the names of those who attend
    • School children and students may be expelled if they attend mosques too often
    Yaad aaiy jo dard ki raat may, jis ki baat ho apni har baat may.

    #2
    our so called muslim leader doesnt say anything about the plight of chinese musliims, but for kashmiris they are at forefront. theres no jehad in kashmir. The paki gov has ideas for more land. If they were really true for the muslims plight how come i never heard pakistani leaders condemn chinese attrocities on ,muslims for practicing their faith and retaining their culture. chinese muslims are not chinese they speak turkish and chinese emperor conquered the nmuslims land. Just as the muslims of india had the right for a seperate homeland so do the turks/muslims of china. but look at out gov not a single word for them, and mushraaf even said to them be nationalistic and serve china, meaning forget ur identity and a seperate homeland.

    [This message has been edited by reza khan (edited April 27, 2002).]

    Comment


      #3
      Glad to hear it, as I have always been taught that there is no religion in China of any kind. I didn't think their government would allow it.

      It would be a little scary to have a country that large, with no religion to guide them.

      Brenda

      ------------------
      Hope for the best, prepare for the worst!!!

      Comment


        #4
        Originally posted by bcsm57:
        Glad to hear it, as I have always been taught that there is no religion in China of any kind. I didn't think their government would allow it.

        It would be a little scary to have a country that large, with no religion to guide them.

        Brenda

        you are abslolutly correct

        Comment


          #5
          Originally posted by bcsm57:
          Glad to hear it, as I have always been taught that there is no religion in China of any kind. I didn't think their government would allow it.

          It would be a little scary to have a country that large, with no religion to guide them.

          Brenda

          brenda, china's major religeons are christianity, buddhism and islam. they do not seem to be vivid because they are all fused intensely with chinese tradition and culture. just because capitalist america hates communist china doesnt mean they dont have a religeon.
          Yaad aaiy jo dard ki raat may, jis ki baat ho apni har baat may.

          Comment


            #6
            Cheegum-
            glad to see guppies branching out to cover more than ethnocentric topic Jazakallah khairun


            Originally posted by reza khan:
            our so called muslim leader doesnt say anything about the plight of chinese musliims, but for kashmiris they are at forefront. theres no jehad in kashmir. The paki gov has ideas for more land. If they were really true for the muslims plight how come i never heard pakistani leaders condemn chinese attrocities on ,muslims for practicing their faith and retaining their culture.
            My dear brother-
            How about calming down a bit. A lot of people are unaware of the atroticities being committed in China. Some leaders include the Chinese Muslims in their prayers, others make a blanket statement for all suffering muslims. Just because some muslim leaders haven't mentioned this doesn't mean, they are ignoring purposely, especially at a time when muslim suffering is widespread, we could sit here and talk for weeks & weeks nonstop about it all.

            chinese muslims are not chinese they speak turkish and chinese emperor conquered the nmuslims land.
            Yes, the Uighars are not ethnically Chinese but lets not forget the majority of Chinese Muslims who are infact Chinese.

            Comment


              #7
              Jazak Allah..

              Very interesting history...

              May Islam flourish with peace, as in past Ameen..

              ------------------
              .::. ﷲ ﻼﺃ ﷲﺃ ﻶ .::.
              Allah-o-Akbar

              ,_ ,
              (O,O)
              ()
              -"--"--- To be sure of hitting the target, shoot first, and call whatever you hit the target

              Comment


                #8
                what my point was that musharraf very well knows whats goin on there, but just to be their chum he wouldnt say any thing about them. in kashmir he was sending mujahideen whom he later branded terrorists. pakistan governement uses some parts of relegion to justify its acts, for more land and call it jihad, if they really were so islamic why havnt they address the affiar of chinese before?

                Comment

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