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Singing and Joyful Play

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    Singing and Joyful Play

    Singing and Joyful Play - 2/2

    The Muslim Creed - Vol. 9 No. 4


    The Sunnah & Listening to Music

    1 – Al-Bukhari narrated that Abu Malik Al-Ash’ari heard the Messenger of Allah say, what translated means, “There will be some members of my Ummah who will render as ‘Halal (permis-sible): illegal sexual intercourse, wearing silken garments (for men), consuming alcohol, and Al-Ma’azif (musical instruments). Some of them would camp next to a mountain-side, while their servants are tending their animals, and a poor person would come to them for some of his needs, so they would tell him, ‘Come back tomorrow.’ But, Allah will destroy them at night, as the mountain will collapse on some of them, and Allah will turn the others into swines and monkeys until the Day of Resurrection.”

    In this great Hadith, the Prophet has foretold about some Muslims who will allow such evils as illegal sexual intercourse, wearing silk for men, consuming alcohol and listening to music. “Rendering as legal” is clear in its indication that these matters that the Prophet has mentioned are ‘Haram (impermissible). The Prophet mentioned adultery and fornication, consuming alcohol, wearing silk and listening to music, all in one sequence, thus indicating that all these acts are ‘Haram.

    2 – Sahl ibn Saa’d said that the Messenger of Allah said, what translated means, “Just before the end of time, there will be Khasf, Qhathf and Maskh.” He was asked, “When will that occur, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “Upon the proliferation of Al-Ma’azif (musical instruments) and female singers, and when Al-Khamr (intoxicants) is rendered ‘Halal.” [At-Tirmithi & At-Tabarani].

    In this Hadith, the Messenger of Allah said that this Ummah will experience Khasf, meaning there will be severe tremors, Qhathf, meaning throwing of stones as punishment from Allah, and Maskh, which entails being turned into swines and monkeys. The Prophet also said that this will occur when Al-Ma’azif appear and become widespread.

    3 – Ibn Umar once heard a shepherd playing his Mizmar (flute) and he then covered his ears with his fingers so that he would not hear it. When the shepherd was no longer playing the Mizmar, ibn Umar uncovered his ears and said, “This is what I saw the Messenger of Allah do.” [Ahmad & Abu Dawood].

    4 – Uthman ibn ‘Affan said, “I have kept ten good deeds preserved for me with my Lord: I was the fourth person to embrace Islam, I have never practiced Al-Ghinaa’, …” [Ya’qub ibn Sufyan & At-Tabarani].

    We previously mentioned several proofs from the Quran and Sunnah that Al-Ghinaa’, which entails singing that is accompanied by music, is impermissible. We will now mention the statements of the Imams of Islam regarding Al-Ghinaa’, Allah willing.

    1– Imam Abu ‘Hanifah did not allow listening to Al-Ghinaa’ and has stated that it is a sin. Also, Imam Abu Yusuf, Abu Hanifah’s renowned student, said regarding Ahlu Ath-Thimmah, as the Christians and Jews who live under Muslim control are called, “They should be prevented from playing Al-Mizmar (flute) and from Al-Ghinaa’.” If this is Abu Yusuf’s ruling regarding Ahlu Ath-Thimmah who indulge in Al-Ghinaa’, then what about his ruling regarding Muslims who indulge in Al-Ghinaa’ and who listen to music? The scholars of Al-Kufah, such as Ibrahim, Ash-Shi’bi, ‘Hammad ibn Abi Sulayman and Sufyan Ath-Thawri have also prohibited Al-Ghinaa’ for muslims.

    2– Al-Qasim ibn Mohammad said, “Al-Ghinaa’ is a Batil (a part of falsehood, or a sin), and the Batil is in the Fire.” He also said, “I asked Imam Malik regarding Al-Ghinaa’, and he said, ‘Allah said, what translated means, So what is after the Truth, save falsehood.’ Therefore, is it a part of the

    3– Is’haq ibn Isa At-Tabba’ said, “I asked Malik ibn Anas regarding Al-Ghinaa’ that some people of Madinah allow. He said, ‘According to us, only the Fussaq (sinners) do such things.’” [Al-Khallal].

    4– Abu Tayyib, Tahir ibn Abdullah At-Tabari, said, “Malik ibn Anas has disallowed Al-Ghinaa’ and listening to it.”

    5– Imam Ash-Shafi’i has stated in his book, Al-Umm, that both the males and females who make Al-Ghinaa’ their trade, will not have their testimony accepted from them, “Because what they do is a part of the prohibited joyful play that is a part of False-hood.” He has also stated that those who practice Al-Ghinaa’ are immoral.

    6– Shaykh Abu Is’haq, a noted Shafi’i scholar, has also stated that Al-Ghinaa’ and playing the Mizmar among the prohibited acts. [At-Tanbih].

    7– Imam Ahmad ibn ‘Hanbal said, “Al-Ghinaa’ leads to the proliferation of hypocrisy in the heart.”

    8– Al-Khallal said, “Al-Abbas ibn Mohammad Ad-Dury said that he heard Ibrahim ibn Al-Munthir being asked, ‘Do you allow Al-Ghinaa’?’ He said, ‘We seek refuge with Allah! Only the Fussaq do this.’”

    9– Ibn Abdil-Barr said that according to the consensus of the scholars, earning money from Al-Ghinaa’ and playing the Mizmar are not allowed. [Al-Kafi].

    10– Imam An-Nawawi also stated that Al-Ghinaa’, even that which is not accompanied by musical instruments, is not allowed. He has also stated that manufacturing musical instruments is ‘Haram (impermissible). Furthermore, he has stated that playing the Kubah, which is a type of drums, is ‘Haram. [Al-Minhaj].

    11– Ibn Qudamah said, “If a person is invited to a meal that entails serving intoxicants, playing the Mizmar, etc., and he can attend such meeting for the purpose of removing such evils, he is obliged to attend so that he can remove the evil. In this case, he will be satisfying two obligations: accepting the invitation of his Muslim brother and removing the Munkar (evil, sin). If he is unable to remove the Munkar, then he is not allowed to attend. If one only discovers the Munkar after he attends, he must remove it or leave. This ruling is similar to what Imam Ash-Shafi’i has ruled.” He also said that Imam Al-Layth said, “If such invitations entail playing Al-’Uod (a musical instrument that is similar to the Guitar), then one is not allowed to attend them.” [Al-Mughni].

    12– Imam Al-Qurtubi said in his Tafsir, “As for the acts that the Sufis have invented these days, such as being addicted to listening to Al-Ghinaa’ using musical instruments… they are ‘Haram.”

    Effects of Al-Ghinaa’ on Mankind

    There is no doubt that Al-Ghinaa’ and music call, lure and invite unto all types of sin and evil. Also, Al-Ghinaa’ and music open the door wide for Satan to lead mankind into the disobedience of Allah. It is a well-known fact the where music is being played and listened to, sin, consuming alcohol and all types of evil proliferate. This is why Islam disallows Al-Ghinaa’ and music, for Allah knows what is harmful and what is beneficial for mankind,

    Should not He Who has created know? And He is the Most Kind and Courteous (to His slaves) All-Aware (of everything). [67:14].

    The scholars of Islam have stressed the harmful effects of Al-Ghinaa’ on the heart and have thus written on this subject in their books. For example, Imam ibn Al-Jawzi mentioned Al-Ghinaa’ and music in his great book, Talbis Iblis. He said, “Know that Al-Ghinaa’ combines two evils: First, it busies the heart from thinking about the Grace of Allah and from serving Him. Second, it makes the heart lean towards the short lived joys and will thus employ all the senses to satisfy these joys.” He has also stated that, “Al-Ghinaa’ leads to Az-Zina (adultery and fornication). There is a similarity between Al-Ghinaa’ and Az-Zina, for Al-Ghinaa’ is the joy of the heart and Az-Zina is the joy of the senses. This is why it is said that Al-Ghinaa’ is the messenger of Az-Zina.”

    Furthermore, Ibn Al-Qayyim said, “The persons whose hearts are still alive and enlightened with the light of Iman, know that Al-Ghinaa’ and musical instruments are the opponents of Allah’s Commands and what He has legislated for His slaves. As for Satan, he has used the mental deficiency that his loyalists have, so he made all this evil fair seeming in their hearts, and they obeyed him. In the meantime, those whose share of Iman and knowledge is minimal, have in turn obeyed the loyalists of Satan. Then, the party and the soldiers of Allah stood up against them in every area and warned against imitating them. The party of Allah includes all the scholars of knowledge, such as the Imams of Hadith, Fiqh, Tafsir, etc.”

    Also, Ibn Al-Qayyim said that, “Listening to Al-Ghinaa’, especially if the voices were beautiful and the time permitting, is a strong intoxicant. This intoxication occurs in two forms. It brings about an overwhelming joy that intoxicates the mind. The second, it leads the heart to satisfy what it likes and desires, whatever these desires may be.” He also said that, “… when the joy of listening to musical tunes and the joy of intoxication (because of listening to music) are combined, then the heart becomes much more intoxicated than when one consumes alcohol!” [Madarij As-Salikin].

    "I put my trust in Allah, my Lord and your Lord! There is not a moving creature, but He has a grasp of its forelock. Verily, my Lord is on the straight path. (The truth)"