Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

Fiqh-us-Sunnah -Prayer

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah -Prayer

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.119a
    Obligatory acts of prayer, Intention

    Says Allah, "And We did not command them save to worship Allah, making the religion sincerely for Him" (al-Bayinah 5). The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Every action is based upon intention. For everyone is what he intended. Whoever made the migration to Allah and His Prophet, then his migration is to Allah and His Prophet. Whoever's migration was for something of this world or for the purpose of marriage, then his migration was to what he migrated to." (Related by al-Bukhari.)

    In Ighatha al-Lufan, Ibn al-Qayyim states, "The intention is the aim and purpose of something. It is a condition of the heart, and it does not come from the tongue. For that reason, the Prophet and his companions never spoke their intentions. What has been introduced into this matter during the actions of purity and the prayer comes from Satan and is a trap for those who are unsure about how to make it. You will find them repeating it over and over, but that is not part of the prayer at all."


    Fiqh-us-Sunnah
    Fiqh 1.120a
    Standing During the Obligatory Prayers

    One must stand during the prayer, if at all possible. Says Allah, "Guard and preserve the prayers and the mid-most prayer, and stand for Allah with devotion." Reported 'Umar ibn Hussain, "I had some physical problem, so I asked the Prophet, upon whom be peace, about the prayer, and he said, 'Pray standing; if you are not able to; pray sitting, if you are not able to; pray (while lying) on your side." (Related by al-Bukhari.) Most scholars say that one should not put his feet together while standing in prayer.

    For voluntary prayers, one can pray sitting even if he can stand, but one who stands receives a larger reward than one who sits. 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The prayer of one who sits is half of the prayer." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
    If one can not stand, he may pray according to what he is capable of doing, as Allah does not burden a soul beyond its ability. He will get a complete reward for the prayer. Abu Musa reported that the Prophet said, "If a slave (of Allah) is sick or travels, he will get a reward for those acts similar to what he would get if he was healthy and at home."

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.120
    Obligatory acts of prayer, Saying the Opening Takbir and Beginning the Prayer

    Ali reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The key to prayer is purity. What puts one into its inviolable state is the takbir, and the tasleem releases one from it."

    As to the authenticity of the report, it is related by ash-Shai'i, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and at-Tirmidhi, who called it the most authentic report on this topic. Al-Hakim and Ibn as-Sakin consider it as sahih. The takbir consists of saying Allahu akbar. Abu Hameed reported that when the Prophet stood for prayer, he would stand straight, raise his hands and say, "Allahu akbar."

    This is related by Ibn Majah, and in the Sahihs of Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban. Al-Bazzar related something similar to it, but with a chain that is sahih according to Muslim's criterion. 'Ali and others also reported this.


    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.121
    Obligatory acts of prayer, Bismillah

    The scholars are agreed that the bismillah (the words "In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful) is a verse in Surah al-Naml, but they differ over whether or not it constitutes a verse of every surah. There are three opinions on this point:

    1. It is a verse of al-Fatihah and of every surah of the Qur'an. Therefore, it is to be recited with al-Fatihah during those prayers that are said aloud or quietly. The strongest support of this opinion comes from the hadith of Na'em al-Mujammir who said, "I prayed behind Abu Hurairah and he recited, 'In the name of Allah...' and then he recited al-Fatihah." At the end of the hadith, he is quoted as saying, "By the One in whose Hand is my soul, I have done what resembles how we prayed with the Messenger of Allah."

    2. It is a verse by itself and was revealed to demarcate different surahs. It is allowed to recite it with al-Fatihah (in fact it is preferred), but it is not sunnah to recite it aloud. Anas said, "I prayed behind the Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman, and they did not recite it aloud."


    This hadith is related by an-Nasa'i, Ibn Hibban and at-Tahawi with a sahih chain according to the criterion of the two Sahihs.

    3. It is not a verse of al-Fatihah or of any other surah. It is disliked to recite it aloud or quietly during the obligatory prayers, but not for the superogatory prayers. This opinion, however, is not strong.

    Ibn al-Qayyim has reconciliated the first and second opinions by saying, "Sometimes the Prophet would recite it aloud, but most of the time he would say it quietly and not aloud."

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.129a
    Sunnah acts of prayer, Raising the Hands

    This must be done at the beginning of each prayer's takbir. Says Ibn al-Mundhir, "All scholars agree that the Prophet raised his hands at the beginning of his prayer."
    Commenting upon this report, Ibn Hajr says, "The Prophet's raising his hands at the beginning of his prayer has been narrated by fifty companions, inluding the ten who were given the tidings of Paradise. " Al-Baihaqi related that al-Hakim said, "I do not know of any sunnah other than this one which is accepted by the four rightly-guided khalifahs, the ten companions who were given the tidings of Paradise, and other companions scattered across many lands." Summing up his evaluation of the report, al-Baihaqi says, "And it is as our teacher Abu 'Abdullah has said."

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.130
    Sunnah acts of prayer, When to Raise the Hands

    One must raise the hands at about the same time he makes the takbir. Nafa' related that when Ibn 'Umar would begin his prayer he would say the takbir and raise his hands. The Prophet also did this. (Related by al-Bukhari, an-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud.) He also reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, would raise his hands upon making the takbir until they were parallel to his shoulders or close to that. (Related by Ahmad and others.)

    As for raising the hands just before the takbir, Ibn 'Umar reported, "When the Prophet, upon whom be peace, stood for prayer, he would raise his hands until they were parallel to his shoulders and would make the takbir. (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) A hadith from Malik ibn al-Huwairith has the wording, "Make the takbir and then raise your hands." (Related by Muslim.) This implies that the takbir comes before the raising of the hands, but Ibn Hajr says, "I have not met anyone who holds that the takbir comes before the raising of the hands."

    It is preferred to raise one's hands while going to bow and upon coming up from the bow
    Twenty-two companions narrated that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, did so. Reported Ibn 'Umar, "When the Prophet, upon whom be peace, stood to pray, he would raise his hands until they were the same height as his shoulders and then he would make the takbir. When he wanted to bow, he would again raise his hands in a similar fashion. When he raised his head from the bowing, he did the same and said, 'Allah hears him who praises Him.' (Related by al-Bukhari, Muslim and al-Baihaqi.) Says al-Bukhari, "He would not do that when he was going to prostrate nor when he came up from his prostration." Al-Bukhari also says, "He would not raise his hands between the two prostrations." Al-Baihaqi has the addition, "He did not stop doing that until he met Allah." Ibn al-Madini said, "In my opinion, that hadith is a proof for the whole creation. Whoever hears it must act by it. There is nothing wrong with its chain." Al-Bukhari wrote a pamphlet on this topic, and related from al-Hassan and Humaid ibn Hilal that the companions used to (perform their prayers) in this manner.

    On the contrary, the Hanafiyyah say that one should only raise his hands at the beginning. This is based on the hadith of Ibn Mas'ud, who reported, "I prayed with the Prophet, upon whom be peace, and he raised his hands only once." This is a weak opinion, and many hadith scholars have criticized this report. Ibn Hibban, though, said that this is the best report.
    The people of Kufah narrated that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, did not raise his hands upon bowing or rising. But, in fact, this is a very weak statement, for it contains many defects and is therefore invalid. Even if we accept it, as at-Tirmidhi did, it does not invalidate the authentic and well-known hadith mentioned earlier. The author of at-Tanqih says that perhaps Ibn Mas'ud forgot that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, raised his hands. Az-Zaila'i writes in Nasb ar-Rayah, quoting the author of at-Tanqih, "It is not strange that Ibn Mas'ud may have forgotten that. Ibn Mas'ud forgot some things from the Qur'an that the Muslims after him never differed about, and those are the last two surahs of the Qur'an. He forgot how two people are to stand behind the imam, that the Prophet prayed the morning prayer on the Day of Sacrifice (during the hajj) at its proper time, how the Prophet, upon whom be peace, combined his prayers at 'Arafah, the position of the forearms and elbows during the prostration, and how the Prophet, upon whom be peace, recited, 'And Him who created the male and the female.' If it is possible that Ibn Mas'ud forgot all of these things concerning the prayer, is it not possible that he also forgot about raising the hands?"
    Nafa' related that when Ibn 'Umar stood for the third rak'ah, he would raise his hands, an action which he ascribed to the Prophet. (Related by al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i.) While describing the Prophet's prayer, 'Ali said that when he stood from the two prostrations, he would raise his hands until they reached his shoulders and make the takbir.

    Women have to do this the same way. Says Ash-Shaukani, "Know that this sunnah is to be done by men and women. There is no proof to show that there is any difference between them on this point. There is also no proof to show that they are to raise their hands to different levels."

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.131
    Sunnah acts of prayer, Placing the Right Hand upon the Left

    This is a preferred act of the prayer. There are twenty hadith from eighteen companions and their followers on this point. Said Sahl ibn Sa'd, "The people were ordered to place their right hand on their left forearm during prayers." Commenting on this, Abu Hazm says, "I do not know if he ascribed this to the Prophet." This hadith is related by al-Bukhari, Ahmad and Malik in his al-Muwatta. Al-Hafez maintains, "Its ruling is considered to be from the Prophet, upon whom be peace, as it is implied that the one who ordered them to do so was the Prophet." He also related that the Prophet said, "All prophets have been ordered to hasten the breaking of the fast and to delay the (pre-fast dawn) meal, and to place our right hands on our left during prayer."
    There is also a hadith from Jabir which says, "The Prophet, upon whom be peace, passed by a man praying with his left hand over his right, and (the Prophet) pulled them away and put his right over his left." This is related by Ahmad and others. Evaluating its chain, an-Nawawi says, "Its chain is sahih. Ibn 'Abdul-Barr holds, "Nothing has reached me different from that. It is the opinion of most companions and their followers." Malik mentioned it in his al-Muwatta and states, "Malik never stopped doing it until he met Allah."

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.132
    Sunnah acts of prayer, The Position of the Hands

    Al-Kamal ibn al-Hamam is of the opinion, "There is no authentic hadith stating that one must place the hands under the chest or below the navel. According to the Hanifiyyah, the hands are to be placed below the navel, and the Shafiyyah say below the chest. Ahmad has two narrations corresponding to these two opinions. The correct position is somewhere in the middle - to be equal." Observes at-Tirmidhi, "Knowledgeable companions, their followers and those that came after them believed that one should put his right hand over the left during prayer, while some say above the navel and others say below the navel..." Nevertheless, there do exist hadith that the Propet, upon whom be peace, placed his hands on his chest. Reported Hulb at-Ta'i, "I saw the Prophet, upon whom be peace, praying with his right hand over his left upon his chest above the elbow." This is related by Ahmad and at-Tirmidhi, who grades it as hassan.

    Reported Wa'il ibn Hajr, "Once when I prayed with the Prophet, upon whom be peace, he placed his right hand over his left upon his chest." The report is recorded by Ibn Khuzaimah, who considers it as sahih, and by Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i with the wording, "Then he put his right hand over the back of his left wrist and forearm."

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.120b
    Obligatory acts of prayer, Reciting al-Fatihah in Every Rak'ah of the Prayer

    There are many authentic hadith which state that it is obligatory to recite al-Fatihah in every rak'ah. Thus, there is no difference of opinion on this point. Some of these hadith are:

    'Ibadah ibn as-Samit related that the Prophet said, "There is no prayer for one who does not recite the opening of the Book al-Fatihah)." This is related by "the group."
    Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet said, "Whoever prays a prayer and does not recite the opening chapter of the Qur'an has not prayed correctly." (Related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Muslim.) Ad-Daraqutni also recorded a hadith with a sahih chain with almost exactly the same wording.

    Said Abu Sa'eed, "We were ordered to recite the opening chapter of the Qur'an and what (else) was easy (for us)." This is related by Abu Dawud. Al-Hafez and Ibn Sayyid an-Nass consider its chain as sahih.
    In some of the narrations dealing with the prayer's incompleteness, it states, "And then recite the 'Mother of the Book' (al-Fatihah)," and he said, "And do that in every rak'ah."

    It is confirmed that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, recited al-Fatihah in every rak'ah of every prayer, obligatory or superogatory. Since this is an act of worship, we can only follow what he did. And the Prophet said, "Pray as you have seen me pray." (Related by al-Bukhari.)

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.122
    Obligatory acts of prayer, One Who Cannot Recite Properly

    Says al-Khattabi, "Basically, one's prayer does not suffice if he does not recite al-Fatihah. If one can recite neither al-Fatihah nor other portions of the Qur'an, he should recite at least seven verses of a similar meaning from the Qur'an. If he can not learn any part of the Qur'an (due to some innate inability, poor memory, or because it's a foreign language), he should say the tasbeeh (Subhaan Allah - Glory be to Allah), the tamheed (al-Hamdu lillah - All praise is due to Allah), and tahleel (La ilaha illal-lah - There is no God except Allah). It is related that he said, "The best remembrance after the speech of Allah is Subhaan Allah, al-Hamdu lillah, La ilaha illal-lah and Allahu akbar." This is supported by Rafa'ah ibn Rafa', who narrated that the Prophet said, "If you have something from the Qur'an, recite it. If not, then say the tamheed, takbir and the tahleel and then bow."

    This hadith is related by Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa'i and al-Baihaqi. The former considers it as hassan.



    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.132a

    Sunnah acts of prayer, The Opening Supplication

    It is preferred for the person to begin his prayer with one of the supplications that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to begin his prayers. This occurs after the opening takbir and before the recitation of al-Fatihah. Some of the supplications that have been related are:

    1. Reported Abu Hurairah, "When the Prophet, upon whom be peace, made the opening takbir, he would be quiet for a little while before his recitation. I asked him, 'O Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, why are you quiet between the (opening) takbir and your recitation? What do you say (at that time)?' He said, 'I say, O Allah, make the distance between me and my sins as far as you have made the distance between the East and the West. O Allah, cleanse me of my sins as a white garment is cleansed of dirt. O Allah, purify me from my sins by snow, rain and hail." (Related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.)

    2. Reported 'Ali, that when the Prophet stood for prayer, he would make the takbir and then say, "I have turned my face to the one who created the heavens and the earth as a sincere submissive (person), and I am not one of the polytheists. My prayers, my sacrifice, my life and my death are all for Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. He has no partner. That is what I have been ordered and I am of those who submit. O Allah, you are the King and there is no Lord besides You. You are my Lord and I am Your slave. I have wronged my soul and You are aware of my sins, so forgive all of my sins. No one forgives sins save You. Guide me to the best character. No one can guide to the best of that save You. Turn me away from its evil, and no one can turn me from its evil save You. At your beck and call, all the good is in Your hands and evil is not to You. And I am for You and to You are the blessings and the exaltedness. I seek your forgiveness and return unto You." (Related by Ahmad, Muslim, at-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud and others.)


    3. It is related that 'Umar used to say, after the beginning takbir, "Glory be to You, O Allah, and to You is the praise. Blessed is Your name and most high is Your honor. There is no Lord besides You." This hadith is related by Muslim with a broken chain. Ad-Daraqutni traces it back to the Prophet and back to 'Umar.

    Commenting on it, Ibn al-Qayyim says, "It has been authenticated that 'Umar began with that in the place (of the preceding prayer) of the Prophet, upon whom be peace. He would recite it aloud and teach it to the people. And owing to that fact, it is considered to have its source with the Prophet, upon whom be peace. For that reason, Imam Ahmad says, "I act by what has been related from 'Umar. If a person begins with something that has been related, it is good."

    4. 'Asim ibn Humaid asked 'Aishah how the Prophet, upon whom be peace, began his late-night prayers. She replied, "You have asked me about something that no one before you has asked. When he would stand for prayer, he would make the takbir ten times (after the opening takbir), and then say 'Al-hamdu lillah' ten times. He would then ask forgiveness ten times, and then would say, "O Allah, forgive me, guide me, provide for me, sustain me and give me refuge from a constraining place on the Day of Resurrection." (Related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.)

    5. 'Abdurahman ibn 'Auf asked 'Aishah how the Prophet, upon whom be peace, began his prayer when he would pray during the night. She said, "When he would get up during the night, he would begin his prayer with, 'O Allah, Lord of Gabriel, Mikhail and Israfil, Creator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of the Unseen and the Seen. You will judge between Your slaves concerning matters wherein they differ. Guide me to the truth in those matters wherein they differ by Your permission, for You guide whom You will to the straight path." (Related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, anNasa'i and Ibn Majah.)


    6. Nafa' ibn Jubair ibn Mut'am related from his father who said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah say in his voluntary prayer, 'Allahu akbar kabeera' three times, 'al-Hamdu lillah katheera' three times, 'Subhanallahi bukratan wa asila' three times, and then 'O Allah, I seek refuge in You from Satan the accursed and from his pricking, spittle and puffing.' I said, 'O Messenger of Allah, what are his pricking, spittle and puffing?' He said, 'His pricking is the insanity by which he takes the children of Adam. His spittle is arrogance, and his puffing is (evil) poetry." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and Ibn Hibban.)

    7. Ibn 'Abbas related that when the Prophet, upon whom be peace, got up for the night prayer, he would say, "O Allah, to You is the praise. You are the support of the heavens and the earth and whatever is therein. To You is the praise. You are the light of the heavens and the earth and whatever is therein. To You is the praise. You are the Truth. Your promise is true. The meeting with You is true. Your speech is true. Paradise is true. Hell-fire is true. Your prophets are true. Muhammad is true. The hour is true. O Allah, to You have I submitted, and in You have I believed. In You I put my trust, and to You do I come. For You do I dispute, and to You is the judgement. Forgive me my earlier and later sins, and what has been private and public. You are the predecessor and the successor. There is no god except You. There is no lord other than You. There is no power or might except in Allah." This hadith is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah and Malik. In Abu Dawud's version, the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said that after the opening takbir.


    8. It is a preferred act for the one in prayer to seek refuge from Satan between his opening supplication and his Qur'anic recitation. Allah says, "When you recite the Qur'an, seek refuge in Allah from the outcast Satan." In the preceding hadith of Nafa' ibn Jubair, the Prophet is reported to have said, "O Allah, I seek refuge in you from Satan, the outcast." Said Ibn al-Mundhir, "It has been related from the Prophet, upon whom be peace, that he would say, 'I seek refuge in Allah from Satan, the outcast' before reciting."

    9. It is sunnah to say ,"I seek refuge in..." silently. In al-Mughni, it states, "One should say the seeking of refuge silently and not aloud, and I do not know of any difference of opinion on that point." But ash-Shaf'i was of the opinion that one may choose between saying it silently or aloud in those prayers recited aloud. It has been related that Abu Hurairah recited aloud, but this report has a weak chain.

    10. The seeking of refuge is to be done in the first rak'ah only. Reported Abu Hurairah, "When the Prophet, upon whom be peace, would get up for the second rak'ah, he would begin with 'al-Hamdu lillahi, rabb ul-'aalimeen', without having any period of silence." (Related by Muslim.)

    Speaking of it, Ibn al-Qayyim says, "The jurists differ over whether or not that is a time to say, 'I seek refuge...' But they agree that it is not a place to make the opening supplication. On the former point, there are two opinions, both of them related from Ahmad. Some of his companions concluded that either the prayer is only one recitation, so it is sufficient just to seek refuge once, or that each recital is a recital by itself that requires the seeking of refuge. They do not dispute the fact that the opening supplication is for the whole prayer. It is sufficient to seek refuge only once, as it is apparent from the authentic hadith." Then he mentions the preceding hadith of Abu Hurairah, and says, "It is sufficient just to make one opening supplication, since there is no real break between the recital of the prayer. The only thing that is between them is the remembrance of Allah, and so on. Therefore, it will be considered as one recital. Ash Shaukani has the final word, and says, 'It is best just to do what has been related from the sunnah, and that is to seek refuge in the first rak'ah only."


    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.136

    Sunnah acts of prayer, Saying 'Ameen

    It is sunnah for everyone to say 'ameen after reciting al-Fatihah. The word ameen is not part of al-Fatihah, but rather a supplication meaning, "O Allah, respond (to or answer what we have said). It should be said aloud in the prayers where the recital is aloud, and quietly in the prayers where the recital is silent. Said Na'eem al-Mujamir, "I prayed behind Abu Hurairah and he said, 'In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful,' then recited al-Fatihah, and closed it with 'ameen. The people also said 'ameen. After the prayer, Abu Hurairah said, 'By the One in whose Hand is my soul, I have followed the prayer of the Prophet."

    Al-Bukhari mentioned this hadith in mu'allaq from while others, such as an-Nasa'i, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban and Ibn as-Siraj related it. Al-Bukhari records that Ibn Shihab (az-Zuhri) said, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, would say, 'ameen."

    Says 'Ata, "'Ameen is a supplication." Ibn az-Zubair and those behind him would say 'ameen and the mosque would ring with their voices.

    Reported Nafa', "Ibn 'Umar did not encourage the people to say it aloud, nor did he discourage them. I have heard him report that." Reporting on this same subject, Abu Hurairah said, "When the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, would recite, '...Not with those with whom You are displeased and not of those who have gone astray,' he would say, 'ameen such that those close to him could hear him." (Related by Abu Dawud.) Ibn Majah's version is, "Until the people in the first row would hear him, and the mosque would ring with the sound." Al-Hakim also relates this hadith, and says that it is sahih according to the criterion of al-Bukhari and Muslim. Al-Baihaqi calls it hassan sahih. Ad-Daraqutni considers it as hassan.

    A similar report from Wa'il ibn Jubair says, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, recite, '...and not of those who have gone astray,' and then say 'ameen, and make it long with his voice." This was related by Ahmad. Abu Dawud has it with the wording, "And he would raise his voice with it." At-Tirmidhi classifies it as hassan and states, "More than one knowledgeable companion and those who followed them have said that a person should raise his voice while saying 'ameen and not make it silent." Ibn Hajr holds that the chain of this hadith is sahih. Reported 'Ata, "I have found two hundred companions of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, in this mosque and when the imam recited,'...and not of those who have gone astray,' I heard them say 'ameen."'Aishah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, 'The Jews do not envy you for anything more than they envy you for the salutations and the saying of 'ameen behind the imam." (Related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah)

    It is preferred to say 'ameen along with the imam, and not before or after him
    Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, When the imam recites, '... not of those with whom You are angered nor of those who have gone astray,' you should say 'ameen. If this corresponds to when the angels say it, he will have all of his previous sins forgiven." (Related by al-Bukhari.) He also reported that the Prophet said, "When the imam recites, '...not of those with whom you are angered nor of those who have gone astray,' then say 'ameen (along with the imam), for the angels say 'ameen and the imam says 'ameen. If his 'ameen corresponds to the 'ameen of the angels, he will have his previous sins forgiven." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i.)

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.126

    Obligatory acts of prayer, The Salaam (Peace Be Upon You and the Mercy of Allah) at the Prayer's End

    Saying the salaam at the end of the prayer is obligatory. 'Ali related that the Prophet said, "The key to prayer is purity. One enters into its inviolable state by the takbir and leaves it by the salaam."

    As to its authenticity, the report is related by Ahmad, ash-Shaf i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and at-Tirmidhi who said, "That is the most authentic report on this topic and the best."

    'Amr ibn Sa'd related that his father said, "I saw the Prophet making the salaam on his right side and on his left side until I could see the whiteness of his cheeks." (Related by Ahmad, Muslim, anNasa'i and Ibn Majah.)

    Reported Wa'il ibn Hajr, "I prayed with the Messenger of Allah. He would make the salaam on his right side by saying, 'Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah." In Bulugh al-Maram, Ibn Hajr says that Abu Dawud related it with a sahih chain.

    It is obligatory to say one salaam, and it is preferred to say two. Ibn al-Mundhir comments that all scholars agree that making only one salaam is permissible. Ibn Qudamah writes in al-Mughni, "There is no clear text from Ahmad that states that two salaams are obligatory. He only said, 'Two salaams are the most authentic act from the Messenger of Allah.' It is permissible to say that this is the regualtion, although it is not obligatory, and others have the same opinion. This is also pointed out in another of his statements where he said, 'Two salaams are more loved by me. But 'Aishah, Salamah ibn al-Aku' and Sahl ibn Sa'd narrated that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, made only one salaam." We can reconciliate these differences by stating that it is sunnah to say two salaams, but it is obligatory to say one. This is the consensus that Ibn al-Mundhir mentioned, and we have no option to reject that. Says an-Nawawi, "It is the opinion of ash-Shaifi and most of the early and later scholars that it is sunnah to say two salaams." Malik and a group of scholars say that only one salaam is sunnah. They adduce this from a weak hadith that can not be used as a proof. If something of this nature had been confirmed from the Prophet, the act was probably done just to show that it is permissible to say only one salaam. Scholars are agreed that only one salaam is obligatory. If one makes only one salaam, he should turn to his right for the first one and to the left for the second one. He should turn until his cheeks can be seen from behind. That is the most authentic form and it is said, "If one says the two salaams to the right or to the left while facing forward, or the first one on the left and the second one on the right, then his prayer would still be valid and he would have fulfilled the act of the two salaams. But, he would have lost the virtue of how they are to be performed."

    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.124b

    Obligatory acts of prayer, The Final Sitting and Recital of the Tashahud

    The Prophet's practice illustrates that when the final sitting of the prayer has been made, one must recite the tashahud at that time. In one hadith, he said, "When you raise your head from the last prostration and sit for the tashahud, you have completed your prayer."

    Says Ibn Qudamah, "It has been related that Ibn 'Abbas said, 'We used to say, before the tashahud was made obligatory upon us, 'Peace be upon Allah before His slaves, peace be upon Gabriel, peace be upon Mikhail.' The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, 'Do not say, 'Peace be upon Allah,' but say, 'Salutations to Allah.' This proves that the tashah ud was made obligatory, although before it was not."

    The most authentic report concerning the tashahud is Ibn Mas'ud's, who said, "When we would sit with the Prophet in the prayer, we would say, 'Peace be upon Allah before His slaves, peace be upon so and so.' The Prophet said, 'Do not say peace be upon Allah, for Allah is peace. When one of you sits, he should say salutations be to Allah, and the prayers, and the good deeds, peace be upon us and upon Allah's sincere slaves (if you say that, it applies to all of Allah's sincere slaves in the heavens and the earth). I bear witness that there is no god except Allah. I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.' Then you may choose whatever supplication you desire." (Related by "the group.")

    Says Muslim, "The people are in agreement over the tashahud of Ibn Mas'ud, and the companions do not differ over it." At-Tirmidhi, al-Khattabi, Ibn 'Abdul-Barr and Ibn al-Mundhir all agree that Ibn Mas'ud's hadith is the most authentic one on this topic.

    Said Ibn 'Abbas, "The Messenger of Allah used to teach us the tashahud like he taught us the Qur'an. He would say, 'Salutations, blessings, prayers and good deeds for Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and the sincere slaves of Allah. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah. I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger." (Related by ash-Shaifi, Muslim, Abu Dawud and anNasa'i.)

    Says ash-Shaifi, "Different hadith have been related about the tashahud, but that one is the best in my opinion, for it is the most complete. Al-Hafez states, "Ash-Shaifi was asked about this choice and the tashahud of Ibn 'Abbas, and he replied, 'I have found it to be the most encompassing. I have heard it from Ibn 'Abbas (through) authentic (chains). To me, it is more complete..."

    There is another form of the tashahud that Malik chose. In al-Muwatta, it is stated that 'Abdurahman ibn 'Abdul-Qari heard 'Umar ibn al-Khattab teaching the people, from the pulpit, this tashahud: "Salutations to Allah, purifications to Allah, the good deeds and prayers be to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and Allah's sincere slaves. I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is His slave and messenger."

    Commenting on the stature of such hadith, an-Nawawi says, "Those hadith concerning the tashahud are all sahih. Hadith scholars are agreed that the strongest of them is the hadith of Ibn Mas'ud, and then the hadith of Ibn 'Abbas. " Ash-Shaf'i said that any tashahud one uses will suffice, for the scholars agree that every one of them is permissible."


    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.124a

    Obligatory acts of prayer, Bodily Parts That Touch the Ground During Prostration

    These parts are: the face, hands, knees and feet. Al-'Abbas ibn 'Abdul-Mutallib reported that he heard the Prophet say, "When a slave (of Allah) prostrates, seven bodily parts prostrate with him: his face, his hands, his knees and his feet." (Related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari.) Said Ibn 'Abbas, "The Prophet ordered us to prostrate on seven bodily parts and not to fold back the hair or clothing: the forehead, the hands, the knees and the feet." In another wording, the Prophet said, "I have been ordered to prostrate on seven bodily parts: the forehead, and he pointed to his nose, the hands, the knees and the ends of the feet." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) In another narration, he said, "I have been ordered to prostrate on seven bodily parts and not to fold back the hair or clothing: the forehead, the nose, the hands, the knees and the feet." (Related by Muslim and an-Nasa'i.)

    Abu Humaid reported that when the Prophet, upon whom be peace, prostrated, he placed his nose and forehead on the ground. This hadith is related by Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi who said, "The scholars act according to this: a person prostrates on his nose and forehead." According to some scholars, if one prostrates on just the forehead without the nose touching the ground, it will still be sufficient. Others say that it would not be sufficient until his nose touches the ground.


    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.124

    Obligatory acts of prayer, How to Attain Calmness

    The "calmness" comes from sitting in the position until the bones are set and still. Some scholars say that, at a minimum, this would take as long as it takes to say one Subhaan Allah.


    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.123a

    Obligatory acts of prayer, Prostration

    We have already stated the Qur'anic verse dealing with this obligatory act. The Prophet explained it in a hadith by saying, "Then prostrate until you attain calmness in your prostration, then rise (and sit) until you attain calmness in your sitting, and then prostrate until you gain calmness in your prostration. The first prostration, sitting afterwards, the second prostration and calmness during all of these acts are obligatory in every rak'ah of every obligatory or superogatory prayer.


    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.123

    Obligatory acts of prayer, Standing Erect After the Bowing

    This is based on Abu Humaid's description of the Prophet's prayer: "He would raise his head from his bowing, then stand straight until all of his backbones returned to their places." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

    'Aishah related that when the Prophet raised his head from bowing, he would not prostrate until his back was straight. (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

    Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet said, "Allah does not look at the prayer of a person who does not straighten his back between his bowings and his prostrations." (Related by Ahmad. al-Mundhiri considers its chain as good.)


    Fiqh-us-Sunnah Fiqh 1.122a

    Obligatory acts of prayer, Ar-Ruku' (Bowing Down)

    There is a consensus on the obligatory nature of the ruku'. Says Allah, "O you who believe, bow down and prostrate yourselves.. ." The position of ruku' is established by bending over, putting one's hands on one's knees, and remaining in that position until he attains "calmness." In another hadith the Prophet said, "Then bow until you attain calmness while your are bowing." Abu Qatadah related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The worst pepole are the thieves who steal part of the prayer." He was asked how this was done, and he replied, "He does not complete his bowings and prostrations," or he said, "He does not straighten his back during his bowings and prostrations."
    As to its authenticity, the report is related by Ahmad, at-Tabarani, Ibn Khuzaimah and al-Hakim, who consider its chain as sahih.

    Abu Mas'ud al-Badri reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The prayer of one who does not straighten his back in his bendings and prostrations is not accomplished." This hadith is related by "the five,'' and Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban, at-Tabarani and al-Baihaqi, who consider its chain as sahih, while at-Tirmidhi grades it as hassan sahih.

    Knowledgeable companions act according to the principle that a person is to make his back straight during his bowings and prostrations. Hudhaifah saw someone who did not straighten his back during his bowings and prostrations, and told him, "You have not prayed. And if you were to die, you would not die in the way of Allah and His Messenger." (Related by al-Bukhari.)



    #2
    Ibrahim thank you very much for this...may i know the link to it or the source?!
    Secondly..still my question not answer yet. Reading this all i still can't understand why Shia's pray with open arms?

    ------------------
    "kaisay na karta usko main pyar, uski haseen main sukh thay hazaar, bichar gayay hum dukh ki hay baat"
    Ain't new ta this....HOMEINVASION('93)

    Comment


      #3
      [QUOTE]Originally posted by Ali_R:
      Ibrahim thank you very much for this...may i know the link to it or the source?!


      Ibrahim says: The source is "FIGH US SUNNAH" and their reference numbers are quoted for you to verify them.


      Secondly..still my question not answer yet. Reading this all i still can't understand why Shia's pray with open arms?


      Ibrahim says; Many things the shia do run contrary to hadiths/Qur'an and they are best answered by a shia, who will a have good explanation for it.


      on the other hand in prayer there are obligatory and sunnah acts, so long as the obligatory are fulfilled as conveyed by the Prophet (pbuh)or shown to us through the hadiths, you having NOTHING to worry about.

      Comment

      Working...
      X