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    First Computer Virus was invented by a Pakistani Brain

    Two Pakistani brothers invented the "Pakistani Brain" virus..

    When and how did the metaphor of the computer 'virus' arise?

    Lauri Mullens
    Los Angeles, Calif.


    Back to Ask the Experts Rob Rosenberger is a computer consultant who maintains the Computer Virus Myths Homepage. He replies:
    The roots of the modern computer virus go back to 1949, when computer pioneer John von Neumann presented a paper on the "Theory and Organization of Complicated Automata," in which he postulated that a computer program could reproduce. Bell Labs employees gave life to von Neumann's theory in the 1950s in a game they called "Core Wars." In this game, two programmers would unleash software "organisms" and watch as they vied for control of the computer. You can read about Core Wars in the May 1984 issue of Scientific American.

    Strangely enough, two science-fiction books in the 1970s helped to promote the concept of a replicating program. Thomas Brunner's Shockwave Rider and Thomas Ryan's Adolescence of P-1 depicted worlds where a piece of software could transfer itself from one computer to another without detection. Back in the real world, Fred Cohen presented the first rigorous mathematical definition for a computer virus in his 1986 Ph.D. thesis. Cohen coined the term "virus" at this point and is considered the father of what we know today as computer viruses. He sums it up in one sentence as "a program that can infect other programs by modifying them to include a, possibly evolved, version of itself."

    The media seldom mentioned computer viruses in the mid-1980s, treating the whole concept as an obscure theoretical problem. The media's perception of viruses took a dramatic turn in late-1988, when a college student named Robert T. Morris unleashed the infamous "Internet Worm." (Some trivia: Morris's father had a hand in the original Core Wars games.) Reporters grew infatuated with the idea of a tiny piece of software knocking out big mainframe computers worldwide. The rest, as they say, is history.

    Some references:

    V.I.R.U.S. Protection by Pamela Kane. Bantam Books, New York, 1989.

    "Computer Viruses: Theory and Experiments," described by Frederick B. Cohen in A Short Course on Computer Viruses; ASP Press, Pittsburgh, 1990.

    Steven White, manager of IBM Research's Massively Distributed System Group, offers some complementary information:

    The term "computer virus" was coined in the early 1980s. Fred Cohen, then a Ph.D. student at the University of Southern California, came up with the idea of using self-replicating software, which spreads by attaching itself to existing programs as a way of attacking the security of multi-user computing systems. He showed this idea to Len Adleman, his thesis advisor. Adleman pointed out the similarity to a biological virus, which uses the resources of the cell it attacks to reproduce itself, and the term "computer virus" began its journey into everyday English.

    Since then, computer viruses have mimicked their biological namesakes, spreading digital disease around the world. And, here at IBM Research, we are taking inspiration from biological defenses to viruses and creating a kind of immune system for cyberspace, which will be able to find, analyze and eliminate new computer viruses from the world's computers quickly and automatically.

    Alex Haddox is product manager of the Symantec AntiVirus Research Center, which manufactures Norton AntiVirus products. He adds:

    The history of the computer virus began in the 1940s when John von Neumann published a paper called "Theory and Organization of Complicated Automata" which documented the possibility of replicating computer programs. John Conway is credited with creating the first "virus" in the form of a life emulating program called the "Game of Life" in the 1960s. In the 1970s, the first true self-replicating programs, referred to as "organisms," were written as experiments in artificial intelligence on UNIX systems and used in small, isolated network type games by large research companies. In 1983, the term "virus" was first coined to describe self-replicating programs by Frederick Cohen and his colleague, Len Alderman. The first reports of serious damage from a PC virus occurred in 1986; the infection was caused by the "Pakistani Brain" virus, which was written by two brothers, Basit and Amjad Farooq Alvi, of Lahore, Pakistan.

    A final reply comes from Jacob Motola of Integralis, a software security company:

    The concept behind the first malicious computer programs was described years ago in the Computer Recreations column of Scientific American. The metaphor of the "computer virus" was adopted because of the similarity in form, function and consequence with biological viruses that attack the human system. Computer viruses can insert themselves in another program, taking over control or adversely effecting the function of the program.

    Like their biological counterparts, computer viruses can spread rapidly and self-replicate systematically. They also mimic living viruses in the way they must adapt through mutation to the development of resistance within a system: the author of a computer virus must upgrade his creation in order to overcome the resistance (antiviral programs) or to take advantage of new weakness or loophole within the system.

    Computer viruses also act like biologics in the way they can be set off: they can be virulent from the outset of the infection or the can be activated by a specific event (logic bomb). But computer viruses can also be triggered at a specific time (time bomb). Most viruses act innocuous towards a system until their specific condition is met.

    The computer industry has expanded the metaphor to now include terms like inoculation, disinfection, quarantine and sanitation. Now if your system gets infected by a computer virus you can quarantine it until you can call the "virus doctor" who can direct you to the appropriate "virus clinic" where your system can be inoculated and disinfected and an anti-virus program can be prescribed.


    #2
    Ohhhhhhhh those bad bad Pakis what will we do with them, At least Mcaffee, Symantec etc... should be greatful

    Comment


      #3
      u came to know this today or what?

      Comment


        #4
        Originally posted by ZZ:
        u came to know this today or what?
        Nope! but lot of Indians will

        Comment


          #5
          Originally posted by Abdali:
          Nope! but lot of Indians will
          they know better than u. go and celebrate floods in orissa or accident in bengal. and what a proud contribution to computers. first computer terrorist was paki. well..

          Comment


            #6
            Originally posted by ZZ:
            Originally posted by Abdali:
            Nope! but lot of Indians will
            they know better than u. go and celebrate floods in orissa or accident in bengal. and what a proud contribution to computers. first computer terrorist was paki. well..

            No I will celebrate your moon and space missions. hahahahah .
            Unless ofcourse the space you are refering to is between your ears. Add up 1B and that is lot of space to celebrate.
            Are you the first tourist in space by Indian space program? hahahahaha u lot are king of bull****ters.

            Comment


              #7
              No I will celebrate your moon and space missions. hahahahah .
              Unless ofcourse the space you are refering to is between your ears. Add up 1B and that is lot of space to celebrate.
              Are you the first tourist in space by Indian space program? hahahahaha u lot are king of bull****ters.


              Talk about jealousy, nobody is stopping u from having your own space program. Stop wasting time on hating others, Kashmir and religious terriorism, u will get somewhere.

              Comment


                #8
                Cool i did not know that at all.

                ------------------
                Our's not to reason why,
                Our's but to do and die:
                You can't fix stupid. So might as well troll them!

                Comment


                  #9
                  Originally posted by Rani:
                  Talk about jealousy, .... Stop wasting time on hating others, ....u will get somewhere.
                  Some advice you should take for yourself.


                  ------------------
                  Our's not to reason why,
                  Our's but to do and die:
                  You can't fix stupid. So might as well troll them!

                  Comment


                    #10
                    Originally posted by Rani:
                    [B


                    Talk about jealousy, nobody is stopping u from having your own space program. Stop wasting time on hating others, Kashmir and religious terriorism, u will get somewhere.[/B]
                    Jealous about your space program hehehe Not just we but the world envy you with moon mission and a thriving tourist space industry all from India.

                    yeah very very jealous.

                    Comment


                      #11
                      Originally posted by CM:
                      Some advice you should take for yourself.


                      its too difficult for her

                      Comment


                        #12
                        Originally posted by Abdali:
                        its too difficult for her

                        Nothing to contribute, back to personal attacks. Great demo of your thinking powers

                        Comment


                          #13
                          Originally posted by Rani:
                          Nothing to contribute, back to personal attacks. Great demo of your thinking powers

                          How about this? is this not new for you ?


                          Kanpur was ‘Khanpur’
                          By Rizwan Ullah

                          Aabrood-e-Ganga has drained countless memory bytes down the stream to be consigned to the ocean of oblivion, thus there is the obvious need to reconstruct history, old and the recent, and renaming places is one of the tools for that reconstruction. As all good and bad deeds in free India, from providing prime ministers to the demolition of the places of worship, originate in Uttar Pradesh, the process of renaming also began there. Banaras being at the top of the list was reverted to its original name Varanasi. Next in queue was Allahabad to be converted to Pariyag. But Pundit Nehru was strongly against the conversion of his birth place so it was postponed and the job was left for the future generations of the state leaders, for they too should have some work in hand to keep them busy. Unfortunately for them, they had to wait for about four decades until the Nehru dynasty was forced to vacate.

                          However, Prof Shabbir Ahmad reminds us that Kanpur was Khanpur. He mentions this while narrating the foundation of two madrasas in Kanpur – Madrasa Faiz-e-Aam and a year later Nadwat-ul-Ulama which was shifted later to Lucknow. This narration occurs in his exhaustive work ‘Talim Ki Kahani’ which covers the Islamic philosophy of education, various Indian philosophies through the ages, manipulations of the British rulers in the field of education and later days syllabi. However, in our school days Kanpur was spelt as Cawnpore. As for its origin, we were taught that there were military camps in the area so the place was called Campo and the British officials spelt it as Cawnpore. Thus it continued until some time after independence when it dawned upon the leaders of free India that they had achieved every thing and that there was no more work left to be done except renaming some places.

                          Anyway, who is Prof Shabbir Ahmad? He is the living example of our immoral forgetfulness and ungratefulness of the beneficiaries of his selfless service to the people of Kanpur who declared him deceased years ago without bothering to confirm it. That is the subject matter of this writing today.

                          Maulana Mohammad Ali Memorial Higher Secondary School is located in Beconganj, Kanpur. A report of its managing committee dated January 14, 1946 is before me. It says, inter alia, ‘In memory of Maulana M.A. Jauhar a primary school was opened in 1939 by three persons, Late Shabbir Ahmad Sahab, Late Rashid Ahmad Sahab and Late Iftekhar Ahmad Sahab. The MMA Memorial Society was established in 1943 with nine basic members (all of them have been mentioned as deceased including Shabbir Ahmad Sahab). The society acquired a plot of land in 1945 for the School from the development board. The deed for the purchase of the land bears the signature of Shabbir Ahmad Sahab the then secretary of the society. The construction of the school building on the newly acquired plot began in 1950. After the completion of the building the school was shifted from the rented building (in Humayun Bagh).

                          Every thing has a limit but perhaps the forgetfulness and ungratefulness of our people is simply limitless. We may offer Fateha for the dead that too with a purpose, but cannot glorify the living for their worthy deeds. The oblivious members of the said society do not know that Prof Shabbir Ahmad retired from the Sindh University, Hyderabad, Pakistan in 1978, he is still alive and authoring books in Urdu and English on the subject of education. I was surprised to see the above mentioned report of the society for I had met Prof Shabbir Ahmad in 1988 in Karachi and I found him then in a sound health condition and after that I never heard of his passing away. This raised my curiosity but I did not know his present whereabouts. However, Mr Raihan Siddiqui a writer and literary critic in Karachi came to my rescue. On my request he traced Prof Shabbir Ahmad and met him sometime last April. Now let me narrate what Prof Shabbir Sahab told him.

                          He was born in 1920 (18) in village Sumbhi, Azamgarh, UP. His father Molvi Ahsanullah Ahsan Sumbhi (d. 1928) was one of the editors of the famous literary journal Zamana, Kanpur of Munshi Daya Narain Nigam. He matriculated from Haleem Muslim High School, Kanpur (1933), FA from Christ Church College (1935), gave up studies due to financial difficulties, did BA, private from the Aligarh Muslim University (1944) and BT (1948), MA (Urdu) from the Agra University (1946). He founded MMA Memorial High School in 1939. He was both the secretary and the Head Master of the school. A co-founder was Molvi Abdus Salam. He was a convert, he left the school suddenly after two-three years without telling anybody, after that he was never heard of, later it was found from the school records and accounts that he had embezzled school funds. After that Prof Shabbir Ahmad ran the school single handedly.

                          He migrated to East Pakistan in September 1950. Became Principal Ghaffar Gaon College in Mymensingh in 1950 and served for two years. Later served as Principal Nitraknoa College in the same district for one year thereafter became Principal Government High School, Dhaka. He went to West Pakistan in 1957 and served as a teacher in Central Government Model School in Islamabad. The same year he got an American scholarship for a course in advanced education in Beirut American University. He returned in 1960 and joined the Sindh University as lecturer in 1961 and retired as a professor in 1978.

                          While returning from Beirut he had traveled by bus and train thus he could visit various famous cities en-rout including Damascus, Ankara, Tehran, Tabrez and Mash had.

                          To add: He had breathed in the progressive air of Kanpur, the Lancashire of India, which had groomed leaders like Maulana Hasrat Mohani and Kaifi Azmi. He lived a very simple life, single and single mindedly devoted to the development of the school which he had left behind under the custodianship of a managing committee appointed by him. Wish him enjoy many more useful years of life. q

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                          Woh afsaana jise anjaam tak, laana na ho mumkin
                          Use ek KHoobsoorat moR dekar, chhoRna achha

                          Comment


                            #14
                            FYI found a new cut and paste and we are foing to see it in all available threads whether computer virus or flood in orissa.

                            Comment


                              #15
                              Originally posted by Rani:
                              Nothing to contribute, back to personal attacks. Great demo of your thinking powers

                              Why is truth sooooooo painful

                              Comment

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