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Pakistan Versus the Last Superpower-: Khalid Duran

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    Pakistan Versus the Last Superpower-: Khalid Duran

    http://www.worldandi.com/

    PAKISTAN VERSUS THE LAST SUPERPOWER
    Khalid Duran
    http://www.worldandi.com/education/2001/March/9.htm

    Pakistanís affairs often seem dwarfed by those of its neighbors, India and China. Yet smaller countries can have a large effect on world events. What is the political situation in Pakistan, and how can it influence the United States and other world powers? Author Khalid Duran explores this topic in THE WORLD AND I in March 2000 issue.


    1. In a class discussion, analyze the title: "Pakistan Versus the Last Superpower: A Former U.S. Ally Moves Toward Jihadism and Isolation." What does it suggest about the outlook and mind-set of Pakistan? What is Pakistanís view of how the rest of the world sees it? Who is the "last superpower," and why is it referred to in this way?


    2. How does Pakistanís geography contribute to its national policies?


    3. What is the history and current status of Pakistanís relationship with the United States? How have U.S. ties with India changed this relationship? Explain.


    4. What role does Kashmir play in the affairs of Pakistan? Give two reasons why Pakistanis maintain that Kashmir should be a part of their country.


    5. What role did the Pakistanis play in the war in Afghanistan? What is the Taliban? What relationship does it have to Pakistan? Why is Afghanistan considered strategically important to Pakistan?


    6. Two political/religious movements have had a great effect on Pakistani politics.

    a. What is Islamism? What is jihadism? What roles do they play nationally?

    b. What is the main jihadist organization called? What class in Pakistan supports it? How does it maintain its importance in Pakistan? What groups in Canada and the United States are affiliated with it? What is its connection to terrorist organizations?


    7. Duran compares conditions in Pakistan to those in North Korea.

    a. What are the parallels between the two countries? What are the differences? Do you agree with Duran?

    b. Which other country is most similar to Pakistan? Explain.


    8. What kind of power does the military hold in Pakistan? Is it recent or ongoing? Has this power been good for the country? List three factors that influence the hard-line positions of Pakistanís military leaders.


    9. What are the prospects for change in Pakistan? Which Pakistanis oppose the present militarist and jihadist policies? Can General Pervez Musharraf, Pakistanís present leader, lessen the influence of the jihadists? Is civil war possible in Pakistan? Explain. (Visit www.csis.org/saprog on the Web, and read "Pakistan: Musharrafís First Hundred Days," dated March 1, 2000.

    #2
    Mohabbat, I am not sure why and where these questions were generated. Is their an
    original article where these came from? If they are just questions posed by the
    author for the general public to answer than I will give it a try. My answers are
    inline.

    [QUOTE]Originally posted by mohabbat:
    http://www.worldandi.com/

    PAKISTAN VERSUS THE LAST SUPERPOWER
    Khalid Duran
    http://www.worldandi.com/education/2001/March/9.htm

    Pakistanís affairs often seem dwarfed by those of its neighbors, India and China.
    Yet smaller countries can have a large effect on world events. What is the political
    situation in Pakistan, and how can it influence the United States and other world
    powers? Author Khalid Duran explores this topic in THE WORLD AND I in
    March 2000 issue.


    1. In a class discussion, analyze the title: "Pakistan Versus the Last Superpower: A
    Former U.S. Ally Moves Toward Jihadism and Isolation." What does it suggest
    about the outlook and mind-set of Pakistan? What is Pakistanís view of how the
    rest of the world sees it? Who is the "last superpower," and why is it referred to in
    this way?

    The only super power presently is USA. The last super power in the future will
    be China. I predict by 2012 China will surpass USA both economically and
    militarily. There is evidence that slowdown in US economy has not effected China
    GDP growth ratio. I believe that this trend will continue as China opens its markets
    and money is withdrawn from US markets due to the downturn.

    Why its called the last super power is a loaded question. Maybe because in the new
    era the new super power will not be able to exert its influence as once done by US
    and former Soviet Union in the past. Also former Soviet Union now have a taste of
    how it feels when you are on the side of the fence. So once US comes down from
    its own high horse and taste just being a major power rather than a super power,
    they will reorganize their geopolitical strategies to eliminate any single super power in the future. I see some major shifts in the security council arrangement after 2012 in regards to meeting this goal.

    Pakistanis are generally moderate people and in not a single elections have elected
    any religious or jehadi party in power. They do not have a mind set as of now to pit
    themselves against any super power.



    2. How does Pakistanís geography contribute to its national policies?

    Immensely, India's continued occupation of Kashmir is driving Pakistan's national
    and international policies. Defense expenditure is one example. In international arena continued support to Talibans is also due to this fact.


    3. What is the history and current status of Pakistanís relationship with the United
    States? How have U.S. ties with India changed this relationship? Explain.

    In short Pakistan has been again and again short changed by US. Whenever they
    needed us they used us at will (Kassinger secret visit to china, CETO and SENTO
    and Afghanistan war are few examples). Whenever we had no benefits left for them
    they discarded us like yesterday's newspaper. This attitude needs to be corrected since
    jehadis and extremist forces are making this a rallying cry to motivate and win over
    people. Americans must be persuaded to understand the dynamics in Pakistan's
    national politics and modify their attitude for their own good.

    For them a moderate Govt. in Pakistan with nukes is better than an extremist jehadi
    one.

    India' relation with US is growing. Mostly due to India's 1 billion people market. Its
    in our interest that this relationship grows further. It will be easier for US than to
    bring India to the negotiating table with us over Kashmir. The backdoor track 2
    diplomacy already has brought some relief in the shape of ceasefire in Kashmir from
    India's side. India acceptance to revive foreign sectery talks at SAARC level is
    another indication. I refuse to believe the popular assumption that Sri Lanka had
    something to do with it.



    4. What role does Kashmir play in the affairs of Pakistan? Give two reasons why
    Pakistanis maintain that Kashmir should be a part of their country.

    Pakistan is distancing itself from that. I believe Pakistan will be even comfortable
    with Kashmir as an independent country sans a strong confederation with Pakistan.
    I believe dividing Kashmir is another option on table where Valley goes to Pakistan
    and Jammu and Laddakh remains with India. Though internal Kashmir alliances and
    parties might not accept that.



    5. What role did the Pakistanis play in the war in Afghanistan? What is the Taliban?
    What relationship does it have to Pakistan? Why is Afghanistan considered
    strategically important to Pakistan?

    Because two enemies are better than. Or to put it another words two threats are
    better than one. Durand line issue has been forever resolved due to Talibans success
    in Afghanistan. Without Talibans other hostile powers might take over Afghanistan
    and that can resurface the Durand line issue. It is strategic since one enemy on one
    side of the border is better than two enemies on each side of the border.


    6. Two political/religious movements have had a great effect on Pakistani politics.

    a. What is Islamism? What is jihadism? What roles do they play nationally?

    They don't play any role politically. They have never won any election. The
    festering wound of Kashmir and war in Afghanistan keeps them going. Once its
    resolved they will die their natural death.


    b. What is the main jihadist organization called? What class in Pakistan supports it?
    How does it maintain its importance in Pakistan? What groups in Canada and the
    United States are affiliated with it? What is its connection to terrorist organizations?

    Maybe intelligence agencies need to be asked that question. ....Though most
    segment which support jehadi organization are poorly or uneducated lower middle
    class or middle class community.



    7. Duran compares conditions in Pakistan to those in North Korea.

    Not similar at all. He is wrong in that sense.

    a. What are the parallels between the two countries? What are the differences? Do
    you agree with Duran?

    No I don't agree with him. Communism has always been a non starter in
    Pakistan.


    b. Which other country is most similar to Pakistan? Explain.

    None that I know of. Its unique in its own way.

    8. What kind of power does the military hold in Pakistan? Is it recent or ongoing?
    Has this power been good for the country? List three factors that influence the
    hard-line positions of Pakistanís military leaders.

    The three factors are: national security, hatred for politicians and self preservation
    of military power and discipline. Military is the only cohesive, disciplined and viable
    institute left in Pakistan. If their power is good is an open ended question. Ofcourse
    we need a strong military for defense. As far as interference in politics is concerned,
    they always replaced bad corrupt to the bone politicians in power. Its another thing
    they never did very well compared to the politicians either. So there is no one single
    answer for that question. Its really better of two evils equation playing here.



    9. What are the prospects for change in Pakistan? Which Pakistanis oppose the
    present militarist and jihadist policies? Can General Pervez Musharraf, Pakistanís
    present leader, lessen the influence of the jihadists? Is civil war possible in Pakistan?
    Explain.

    The answers to the above are in the same order as they were posed.

    A lot if executed correctly.
    Most of them except when it comes to Kashmir.
    Yes if he stops being so cautious and cowardly in his approach.
    Not likely at this time.





    [This message has been edited by Shahbaz Raza (edited March 24, 2001).]

    Comment


      #3
      Yes, the questions are related to a an excellent article in THE WORLD AND I magazine March 2000 issue on Pakistan. Unfortunately it is not available on the net. It would be great if someone who has access to a scanner posts the article.

      PAKISTAN VERSUS THE LAST SUPERPOWER
      By Khalid Duran

      Comment


        #4
        http://www.worldandi.com/subscribers...arch/duran.cfm

        Pakistan Versus the Last Superpower
        Underestimated Pakistanis May Be a Degree Too Self-Confident
        by Khalid DurŠn
        http://www.worldandi.com/current/index.shtml

        Comment

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