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    Hi all,

    Lets just have a look on effects of Nuclear explosion.
    I know some stupid people will say that this is the future of India or Pakistan.
    No one can hepl them ... not even God....
    they are sick

    In 1961, Physicians for Social Responsibility was organized by Boston area physicians to educate the public about the medical effects of nuclear testing and nuclear war. Thirty five years later, the nuclear arsenals of the United States, Russia and the other six declared and undeclared nuclear weapons states have grown significantly. Despite the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the threat of nuclear war persists, particularly in the event of accidental or unauthorized launch -- a possibility that has grown larger with the deterioration of Russia's nuclear command and control system.

    In May of 1962, the Special Study Section of Physicians for Social Responsibility published a series of groundbreaking articles in the New England Journal of Medicine (1) describing the physical and medical effects of a major nuclear attack on an American city. Their study demonstrates that even today, there is no practical medical response to a deliberate or accidental nuclear attack - except to prevent such an event from ever happening. As physicians accustomed to the labor of applying practical solutions to life-threatening situations, PSR has recommended that policy-makers reduce the nuclear threat by taking rapid steps to take nuclear forces off alert and by taking swift action to reduce and eliminate all nuclear weapons.

    The Effects of a Nuclear Explosion on a Major American City

    The 1962 articles in the New England Journal of Medicine described the destruction and medical implications of the detonation of a 20 megaton thermonuclear ground-burst explosion above Boston, Massachusetts. Changes in nuclear weapons targeting strategy make it more likely that a number of smaller-yield weapons - with possibly even greater cumulative destructive impact - would be used in the event of a modern-day nuclear strike.

    The following summary of effects is based on a 20-megaton ground-burst nuclear detonation above a city with a population of 2.8 million during the day time when many people from outlying areas would be in the city working or shopping.

    Ground Zero to Two Miles:

    Within 1/1000th of a second, a fireball would form enveloping downtown and reaching out for two miles in every direction from ground zero, the point where the bomb went off. Temperatures would rise to 20 million degrees Fahrenheit, and everything--buildings, trees, cars, and people--would be vaporized.

    Two Miles to Four Miles from Ground Zero:

    Out to a distance of 4 miles, the blast would produce pressures of 25 pounds per square inch and winds in excess of 650 miles per hour. These titanic forces would rip buildings apart and level everything, including reinforced concrete and steel structures. Even deep underground bomb shelters would be crushed.

    Four Miles to Ten Miles from Ground Zero:

    As far as six miles from the center of the explosion, the heat would vaporize automobile sheet metal. Glass would melt. Out to a distance of ten miles in all directions, the heat would still be intense enough to melt sheet metal. At this distance, the blast wave would create pressures of 7 to 10 pounds per square inch and winds of 200 miles per hour. Reinforced concrete buildings would be heavily damaged and all other buildings--masonry and wood frame--would be leveled.

    Sixteen Miles from Ground Zero:

    At a distance of 16 miles from the center, the heat would ignite all easily flammable materials--houses, paper, cloth, leaves, gasoline, heating fuel--starting hundreds of thousands of fires. Fanned by blast winds still in excess of 100 miles per hour, these fires would merge into a giant firestorm more than 30 miles across and covering 800 square miles. Everything within this entire area would be consumed by flames. Temperatures would rise to 1400 degrees Fahrenheit. The death rate would approach 100%.

    Firestorms of this type, though on a smaller scale, developed in Hamburg and Dresden and in parts of Tokyo after conventional bombing attacks during World War II. The information gained from these experiences has particular relevance to the question of fallout shelters. In these earlier firestorms only those who left their bomb shelters had any chance of surviving. Those who remained in underground shelters were killed, roasted as their bunkers were turned into ovens and suffocated as the fires consumed all of the oxygen in the air.

    Beyond Sixteen Miles:

    At 21 miles from ground zero, the blast would still produce pressures of two pounds per square inch, enough to shatter glass windows and turn each of them into hundreds of lethal missiles flying outward from the center at 100 miles per hour. At 29 miles away from the center the heat would be so intense that all exposed skin, not protected by clothing, would suffer third degree burns. To a distance of 32 miles second degree burns. Even as far as 40 miles from ground zero anyone who turned to gaze at the sudden flash of light would be blinded by burns on the retina at the back of their eyes.

    Major Injuries Caused by a Nuclear Explosion:


    Within minutes after the bomb exploded 1,000,000 people would die. Among the 1,800,000 survivors more than 1,100,000 would be fatally injured. Another 500,000 would have major injuries from which they might recover if they received adequate medical care. Less than 200,000 people would remain without injuries.

    Burn Wounds

    In the immediate post attack period, burns would constitute the most common and serious medical problem. Hundreds of thousands of people would have sustained major second and third degree burns, some from the direct effects of the heat flash on exposed skin, others injured in the thousands of fires that would rage on the periphery of the great firestorm. These people would need urgent and intensive medical therapy. It would not be available.

    Facilities for Treating Burn Wounds

    In the entire United States, there are only 2000 special beds for burn patients. In most major metropolitan areas there are only 100 burn beds and most of these would have been destroyed by the bomb. At best, a tiny fraction of the hundreds of thousands of burn patients would receive appropriate medical care. The rest would die.

    Other Types of Injuries

    In addition to these burn patients there would be many thousands of other injuries. People blinded by the blast flash or deafened when the pressure wave ruptured their ear drums. People with lungs collapsed by the tremendous pressures. People with stab wounds of the head chest and abdomen who had been struck by flying debris. People with bones broken when they had been hurled through the air by the hurricane force winds or trapped under collapsing buildings.

    The Effects of Radiation Sickness

    The Effects of Fall-Out

    Shortly after the explosion, there would be added to this list of casualties tens of thousands of others suffering from a unique form of injury: radiation sickness. The precise extent of radiation injuries would depend to a great deal on weather conditions; particularly the direction and speed of the wind at the time of the explosion. These factors would determine how far, and in what direction, the fallout would spread.

    Effects of High Doses of Radiation Sickness

    People who were exposed to very high doses of radiation, 4000 to 5000 Rads, would suffer what is known as the central nervous system syndrome. Their brain tissue, damaged by the radiation, would swell, causing nausea, vomiting, explosive diarrhea, and progressive difficulty walking talking and thinking clearly. They would develop convulsions and pass into a coma and die, usually within the first day or two after the bomb. Once someone had been exposed to doses in this range, there would be no effective treatment.

    Effects of Medium Doses of Radiation Sickness

    People exposed to lesser doses of radiation, down to about 400 to 600 Rads, would suffer a gastrointestinal form of radiation sickness. They would experience nausea, vomiting and diarrhea soon after exposure which would last for several days and then seem to improve. But, after a few days to a week, the symptoms would return and become worse. The diarrhea and vomit would become bloody as the lining of their stomachs and intestines, damaged by the radiation, began to shed. The majority of these patients would also die, despite the most intensive medical therapy.

    Effects of Low Doses of Radiation Sickness

    People with even smaller radiation exposure, in the 100 to 300 Rad range, would suffer from the hematologic radiation syndrome. They also would suffer nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for a few days, but these symptoms would resolve. About three weeks after exposure, their bone marrow would stop producing normal numbers of blood cells. As their white blood cell count fell, they would become prey to infection. Sores would form in their mouths. Burns and other wounds suffered in the initial attack would become infected and fail to heal. They would also have a fall in the number of platelets, the cell fragments that help blood to clot. They would hemorrhage into their skin, and new bleeding would begin in the intestines and stomach.

    Chances For Survival From Radiation Sickness

    Those who had received doses in the lower end of this range would have a very great chance of surviving if they received adequate care. Those at the upper end of the exposure scale would have a much worse prognosis, even if they received intensive therapy. Unfortunately it would be impossible to tell how much radiation a given patient had received. Except at the very highest doses, the initial symptoms would be the same. The already overwhelming problem of caring for the wounded would be complicated by an inability to decide who might benefit from therapy and should receive whatever resources might be available.

    The Effects of a Nuclear Explosion on Medical Care

    Effects of a Nuclear Explosion on Health Care Professionals

    There would be only the most limited medical resources available to care for the million and a half casualties. Doctors, who tend to live and work in and near big cities, would be killed and wounded at rates even higher than the general population. Nearly 70 percent of the doctors in the metropolitan area would be killed outright or fatally wounded, and another 15 percent would suffer from lesser wounds. Less than 1000 doctors would survive uninjured. That would mean more than 1500 seriously injured patients for each doctor.

    Ability of Health Care Professionals to Treat the Wounded

    If each of these doctors spent only 10 minutes with each patient, and worked 20 hours each day, it would take 2 weeks before each injured person was seen for the first time. Even this grim picture is extremely optimistic. It assumes that all of the wounded were efficiently brought to medical facilities, a near impossible task in the twisted wreckage that would remain after the blast, where even roads would have been torn up or filled with rubble. It assumes that the available doctors would have the strength, both physical and emotional, to work 20 hours a day caring for these horribly injured patients. That they would be willing to abandon their family responsibilities and to expose themselves to continued radioactive contamination in order to meet their professional responsibilities. That they would spend no time caring for pre-existing medical problems, or for new acute problems --heart attacks, strokes-- that would occur, independent of the bomb, at the usual expected rates. That they would spend no time comforting, or even talking to the bereaved. That they would not have to take time to see people who were not actually physically injured, but thought they were. That their would not be interrupted by frantic parents demanding more attention for their wounded and dying children.

    Resources Available to Health Care Professionals Following a Nuclear Explosion

    But even assuming that each patient did receive ten minutes of medical care, what difference would it make? Doctors would be working without any of the supplies and equipment that are essential to modern medicine. There would be fewer than 200 general hospital beds left in the entire metropolitan area. There would be few X-ray machines and no electricity to run those that were not destroyed. Whatever stocks of medicine were not consumed in the initial blast and fire would be rapidly exhausted. There would be no antibiotics to treat infection, no sterile surgical instruments to debride the wounds. There would be no blood, plasma, or intravenous solutions to maintain those who were bleeding or unable to drink. In fact, there would be almost no water for those who could drink, and what scant supplies remained would be contaminated with radioactive debris, and probably also with bacteria. There would be no bandages to dress the burns and no plaster to set the broken bones. There would not even be narcotics to ease the pain. And so this ten minutes of medical care would matter very little to those who were seen.

    But, of course, most would not find their way to care. They would suffer alone, trapped in the wreckage, and untended. And they would die. Even among the half million wounded whose injuries were not necessarily fatal, most would die. During all of World War II some 400,000 Americans were killed. One bomb, dropped on one American city of 2.8 million people, would kill more than six times as many Americans as killed in WWII. The total toll, including those killed outright and those who died of their wounds within the first month, would be greater than 2,500,000.

    the population of Delhi bombay togather is about 30 million. I dont have much idea about population of Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi etc.
    Although A nuclear war between India and Pakistan is almost impossible , but still , People here are talking about nuclear war like they are talking about "mausam Ka haal"..

    Its not about who will suffer more intially , becuase after effects are more horrible.
    Lets see who is ready to see thier parents, friends and children suffering in nuclear HELL.

    the people who will die immidiatly shall be the most fortunate one.



      sooner or later someone is going to use nuclear weapons again .
      I was just watching the news on Iraq they will get some nukes And Im sure they would use them .
      people can just drift into wars and I think if war breaks out between india and pakistan its likely to turn nuclear .


        The effects of the use of such things should put the use of these in perspective. There cannot be a caus belli that would ever justify the results of use. Even the possibilty of occupation does not equal this because there are other options in that event, which is not likely anyhow! The possesions of these seriously hamper the ability of nations to conduct any military action at all. The '65 War lasted less than two weeks. You guys don't hammer it out for too long, historically. This makes it all the more ironic for the nuclear scare! The US and USSR made too many of these and you guys have done the same. "We" are now paring down and Mush has the right idea by suggesting this course of action to India. I guess you gotta' have 'em before you can go into dissarmament agreements.


          Originally posted by jonny2mad:
          sooner or later someone is going to use nuclear weapons again .
          I was just watching the news on Iraq they will get some nukes And Im sure they would use them .
          people can just drift into wars and I think if war breaks out between india and pakistan its likely to turn nuclear .

          You actually believe that crap?!! All just designed to get the public behind an attack on Iraq.

          Irag can barely keep its tank working, how can you say they are going to get Nukes?!!