Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

Inventions from around the world

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

    Inventions from around the world

    All of the credit for the concept of this interesting thread goes to Mursalin, one of the hardest working Mods in the political forums. I am not certain how best to arrange all of this information, but I thought to start off with ancient inventions and then gradually move to more modern ones. I am certain there will be some errors in the info. presented, but I hope very much some will let me know so I can rectify them ASAP. Some links include pictures of the objects.

    Trepanation Kit, found globally, 2000 BCE http://www.smith.edu/hsc/museum/anci...ons/hsc06b.htm
    Trepanation is a method of brain surgery whose origins can be traced to the Late Stone Age. Some remote societies still practice it today, and in some tribal cultures of East Africa it has survived as an integral part of traditional medicine. Doctors employed this invasive procedure to relieve distress caused by a variety of disturbances, including skull fractures, parasites, pressure, hydrocephaly, incurable headaches, and even evil spirits. Intricate and refined instruments aided prehistoric surgeons in the different methods of penetrating the skull, and sometimes in actually removing tissue from the brain.

    Tumbler Lock, Egypt, Iraq, Greece, 1000 BCE http://www.smith.edu/hsc/museum/anci...ons/hsc09b.htm
    This simple tumbler lock was probably invented around 1000 BCE, although a date of 2000 BCE has also been proposed. Many sources believe this lock was invented in Egypt, though locks of this type have been found in ruins in Iraq that predate those found in Egypt. After its invention and its movement into Egypt, the lock made its way into Greece. Here this new system was a great improvement over the previous locks, which were simply a board drawn across a door. From Greece the lock moved into Europe. The lock is the first mechanical fastening for doors, and is said to be the only major European architectural improvement in classical times. The mechanism consists of a key and a lock. The key is simply a bit of wood with small pins, usually of brass. These pins enter small holes in the bolt and lift similar pins in the lock. The pins of the key push the lock pins out of the holes, and the bolt can be moved aside and the door opened. When leaving the building, the bolt is slid across the door jamb, and the pins fall into the grooves in the bolt. To unlock, the key is slid into the opening in the bolt and lifted up, which moves the bolt-pins out of the way.

    Ancient calendar systems http://www.civilization.ca/civil/maya/mmc07eng.html
    Of all the world's ancient calendar systems, the Maya and other Mesoamerican systems are the most complex, intricate and accurate. Calculations of the congruence of the 260-day and the 365-day Maya cycles is almost exactly equal to the actual solar year in the tropics, with only a 19-minute margin of error. Maya astronomer-priests looked to the heavens for guidance. They used observatories, shadow-casting devices, and observations of the horizon to trace the complex motions of the sun, the stars and planets in order to observe, calculate and record this information in their chronicles, or "codices". From these observations, the Maya developed calendars to keep track of celestial movements and the passage of time. The Maya also kept detailed records of the moon, although these do not seem to constitute a formal lunar calendar.

    #2
    Chaldean Sundial, Greece, 320 BCE http://www.smith.edu/hsc/museum/anci...ons/hsc13b.htm
    The inventions of the hemispherium and the hemicyclium are attributed to Berosus (356-323 BCE), a Chaldean priest and astronomer who brought these types of sundials to Greece. Both dials use the shape of a concave hemisphere, a shape like the inside of a bowl that mimics, in reverse, the apparent dome shape of the sky.

    As the sun moved across the sky above, the shadow of the gnomon or pin would trace the reverse of its course through the inscriptions on the curve below. The hemispherium was carved out of a block of stone and its inner surface scored with eleven lines, dividing the hemisphere and the passage of a shadow through the day into twelve equal parts. The pin of the hemispherium cast its shadow from the center of the hemisphere, such that the noon-day sun would have no shadow at all. The hemicyclium functioned on the same principle, but part of the hemisphere was cut away to facilitate the reading of the shadows, and the pin was placed horizontally at the lip of the dial.

    Archimedes' Screw, Egypt, 250 BCE http://www.smith.edu/hsc/museum/anci...ons/hsc14b.htm [no picture]
    Named for its inventor, the Greek mathematician Archimedes (237-212 BCE), the Archimedes screw is a device for raising water. Essentially, it is a large screw, open at both ends and encased lengthwise in a watertight covering. When one end of the screw is placed in water and the screw is elevated at an angle and then turned, water trapped in the air pockets between the threads rises from the open lower end, up the length of the screw, and is released through the open upper end. Used over 2000 years ago by the Egyptians for irrigation, the Archimedes screw is still in use today, ranging in size from a quarter of an inch to twelve feet in diameter.

    Comment


      #3
      Compass, China, 220 BCE http://www.smith.edu/hsc/museum/anci.../compass2.html
      Earliest records show a spoon shaped compass made of lodestone or magnetite ore, referred to as a "South-pointer" dating back to sometime during the Han Dynasty (2nd century BCE to 2nd century CE). The spoon-shaped instrument was placed on a cast bronze plate called a "heaven-plate" or diviner's board that had the eight trigrams (Pa Gua) of the I Ching, as well as the 24 directions (based on the constellations), and the 28 lunar mansions (based on the constellations dividing the Equator). Often, the Big Dipper (Great Bear) was drawn within the center disc. The square symbolized earth and the circular disc symbolized heaven. Upon these were inscribed the azimuthal points relating to the constellations. Its primary use was that of geomancy (prognostication) to determine the best location and time for such things as burials. In a culture that placed extreme importance on reverence for ancestors, this remained an important tool well into the 19th century. Even in modern times there are those who use this divination concepts of Feng Shui (literally, of wind and water) for locating buildings or fortuitous times and locations for almost any enterprise. There is a story that the first Chin emperor used the divining board and compass in court to affirm his right to the throne. Primarily, the compass was used for geomancy for a long time before it was used for navigation. [More info. supplied on above link]

      Comment


        #4
        Coin-Operated Holy Water Dispensing Machine http://www.smith.edu/hsc/museum/anci...ons/hsc18b.htm
        Designed by the Greek inventor Heron, this coin-operated holy water dispenser was used in Egyptian temples to dispense water for ritual washings. Worshippers would place a coin into the machine and receive holy water to bathe themselves with before entering the temple. At the end of the day, the slot machine would be emptied of its coins and refilled with holy water for the next day's worshippers. Dropping a coin into the slot machine initiates a chain reaction: the weight of the coin depresses a metal pan, which in turn results in the opening of a valve, which in turn allows the water to flow out for the worshipper.

        Battery, Baghdad, 250 BCE http://www.smith.edu/hsc/museum/anci.../battery2.html
        The Baghdad Battery is believed to be about 2000 years old from the Parthian period (roughly 250 BCE to CE 250). The jar was found in Khujut Rabu just outside Baghdad and is composed of a clay jar with a stopper made of asphalt. Sticking through the asphalt is an iron rod surrounded by a copper cylinder. When filled with vinegar - or any other electrolytic solution - the jar produces about 1.1 volts. There is no written record as to the exact function of the jar, but the best guess is that it was a type of battery. Scientists believe the batteries (if that is their correct function) were used to electroplate items such as putting a layer of one metal (gold) onto the surface of another (silver), a method still practiced in Iraq today.

        The Astrolabe http://www.mastep.sjsu.edu/history_of_tech/islam.htm
        Observatories were first established in the Islamic world, in major cities such as Baghdad, Hamadan, Toledo, Maragha, Samarkand, and Istanbul, and new instruments were developed. The Muslim invention of the astrolabe, for example, was one of the most important in astronomy until the invention of the telescope in the 17th century.

        From: http://www.astrolabes.org/HISTORY.HTM : Arab treatises on the astrolabe were published in the ninth century and indicate a long familiarity with the instrument (the oldest existing instruments are Arabic from the tenth century, and there are nearly 40 instruments from the 11th and 12th centuries). The astrolabe was inherently valuable in Islam because of its ability to determine the time of day and, therefore, prayer times and as an aid in finding the direction to Mecca. It must also be noted that astrology was a deeply imbedded element of early Islamic culture and that astrology was one of the principle uses of the astrolabe.

        Comment


          #5
          Nadia i will have to do some research about this but off the top of my head,some half decent inventions from Scotland:
          Andrew Fleming....Penacillin

          John Logie Baird.....Television

          Alegander Graham Bell....Telephone

          Stephenson.....Steam locomotive (rocket)

          Macadam.....Tarmac (roads)

          Macintosh......raincoat.

          Thats about it till i do some research,i know that Edinburgh has been at the forefront of medical sciences,and i am sure that there have been some excellent medical discoveries from Scotland.Sorry if i seem cocky here,but i am very patriotic.

          I must give the credit to the ancient Muslims,without which we would not even had science,astrology,medicine etc etc..it was a wondrous thing they did keeping literature and the sciences for future mankind.

          [This message has been edited by Braveheart (edited January 07, 2002).]

          Comment


            #6
            Braveheart will you quit banging on about yer damn country, we all know the only non-drunks living in Scotland are the sheep http://www3.pak.org/gupshup/smilies/biggrin.gif

            Comment


              #7
              Originally posted by Mr Xtreme:
              Braveheart will you quit banging on about yer damn country, we all know the only non-drunks living in Scotland are the sheep http://www3.pak.org/gupshup/smilies/biggrin.gif
              You haven`t met the sheep,have you Mr.X?

              Comment


                #8
                Braveheart - why are you apologizing? http://www3.pak.org/gupshup/smilies/smile.gif It's good to have pride in one's country. There's a Scottish cafe close by to where I study, and hanging inside they have this long scroll detailing many of the inventions by Scottish people. You're absolutely right - there have been many excellent inventors from Scotland. Some are listed below.

                Postage stamps ... Scot James Chalmers
                Anaesthetics ... James Simpson, Edinburgh physician
                Antisepsis ... Joseph Lister
                Radar Defense System ... Sir Robert Watson-Watt
                Sulphuric Acid ... John Roebuck
                The telegraph ... The Scots Magazine
                Cloud Chamber ... Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
                Kaleidoscope ... Sir David Brewster http://www.scottish-inventions.org.uk

                ------------------
                ...for without doubt in the remembrance of God do hearts find satisfaction {Holy Quran XIII.28}

                Comment


                  #9
                  Folks, take this thread to Inventions Section, what is political about this discussion? Xtreme, I once nicked a Tweed Jacket from Marks and Sparks (I mean Spencer) I think Whisky (Irish spell it with an E) and Tweed are two of the most important inventions from Scotland. What else is there anyway, get trashed and stay warm.

                  Comment


                    #10
                    As I said in the other thread. The most important contributions of Scotland to humanity are:

                    1) Compound interest
                    2) Golf
                    3) Scotch

                    the latter being the most loved by us desis.

                    Comment


                      #11
                      I think the most interesting invention from the land that gave us such luminaries as the 'Krankies' has to be 'The Scottish Suppository'
                      http://www.firstfoot.co.uk/patently%...uppository.htm

                      Comment


                        #12
                        .

                        [This message has been edited by CM (edited June 05, 2002).]
                        You can't fix stupid. So might as well troll them!

                        Comment


                          #13
                          Originally posted by Mr Xtreme:
                          Braveheart will you quit banging on about yer damn country, we all know the only non-drunks living in Scotland are the sheep http://www3.pak.org/gupshup/smilies/biggrin.gif
                          Mr X I think that Wales is more famous for it's sheep than Scotland. I heard there are 9 million sheep compared to just 3 million people in the Principality. But instead of knocking Scotland maybe you could share with us what your part of the country/world has invented? http://www3.pak.org/gupshup/smilies/smile.gif

                          A truly splendid job Nadia, Braveheart and others, keep it up. As we have members from all corners of the world maybe we can all share one or two great inventions that our country/place of residence invented?

                          Comment


                            #14
                            Originally posted by Nadia_H:
                            Braveheart - why are you apologizing? http://www3.pak.org/gupshup/smilies/smile.gif It's good to have pride in one's country. There's a Scottish cafe close by to where I study, and hanging inside they have this long scroll detailing many of the inventions by Scottish people. You're absolutely right - there have been many excellent inventors from Scotland. Some are listed below.

                            Postage stamps ... Scot James Chalmers
                            Anaesthetics ... James Simpson, Edinburgh physician
                            Antisepsis ... Joseph Lister
                            Radar Defense System ... Sir Robert Watson-Watt
                            Sulphuric Acid ... John Roebuck
                            The telegraph ... The Scots Magazine
                            Cloud Chamber ... Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
                            Kaleidoscope ... Sir David Brewster http://www.scottish-inventions.org.uk

                            Thanks for as great link,Nadia.A scottish cafe in Canada,what on earth do they serve?can you get a haggis with your coffee,maybe scots porridge oats,seriously though,its good to know that we are still putting ourselves about.http://www3.pak.org/gupshup/smilies/biggrin.gif

                            Comment


                              #15
                              Here is a partial list of inventions by Black Americans:

                              A.P. Ashbourne Biscuit cutter November 30, 1875
                              L.C. Bailey Folding bed July 18, 1899
                              A.J. Beard Rotary Engine July 5, 1892
                              A.J. Beard Car-coupler November 23, 1897
                              G.E. Becket Letter Box October 4, 1892
                              L. Bell Locomotive smoke stack May 23, 1871
                              M.E. Benjamin Gong and signal chairs for hotels July 17, 1888
                              M.W. Binga Street sprinkling apparatus July 22, 1879
                              A.B. Blackburn Railway signal January 10, 1888
                              Henry Blair Corn planter October 14, 1834
                              Henry Blair Cotton planter August 31, 1836
                              Sarah Boone Ironing board April 26, 1892
                              C.B. Brooks Street-sweepers March 17, 1896
                              O.E. Brown Horseshoe August 23, 1892
                              J.A. Burr Lawn mower May 9, 1899
                              J.W. Butts Luggage carrier October 10, 1899
                              W.C. Carter Umbrella stand August 4, 1885
                              T.S. Church Carpet beating machine July 29, 1884
                              G. Cook Automatic fishing device May 10, 1899
                              J. Cooper Elevator device April 2, 1895
                              P.W. Cornwall Draft Regulator February 7, 1893
                              A.L. Cralle Ice-cream mold February 2, 1897
                              W.R. Davis, Jr. Library table September 24, 1878
                              C.J. Dorticus Machine for embossing photo April 16, 1895
                              Clarence L. Elder Occustat 1976
                              T. Elkins Refrigerating apparatus November 4, 1879
                              F. Flemings, Jr. Guitar (variation) March 3, 1886
                              G.F. Grant Golf tee December 12, 1899
                              J. Gregory Motor April 26, 1887
                              M. Headen Foot power hammer October 5, 1886
                              B.F. Jackson Gas burner April 4, 1899
                              Fredrick M. Jones Automatic refrigeration system
                              J.L. Love pencil sharpener 1897
                              Latimer and Nichols Electric lamp September 13, 1881
                              T.J. Marshall Fire extinguisher (variation) May 26, 1872
                              Elijah McCoy Lubricator for steam engines July 2, 1872
                              Garrett A. Morgan Gas mask
                              Garrett A. Morgan Traffic signal 1923
                              J.F. Pickering an airship 1900
                              W.B. Purvis fountain pen 1890
                              Norbert Rillieux Sugar refining process 1846
                              H. Spears Portable shield for infantry December 27, 1870
                              Rufus Stokes Air-purification device 1968
                              E.H. Sutton Cotton cultivator April 7, 1878
                              Granville T. Woods Electromechanical brake August 16, 1887
                              Granville T. Woods Railway telegraphy November 15, 1887
                              Granville T. Woods Induction telegraph system November 29, 1887
                              Granville T. Woods Overhead conducting system for May 29, 1888
                              electric railway
                              Granville T. Woods Electromotive railway system June 26, 1888
                              for long-haul trucks

                              Comment

                              Working...
                              X